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May 15, 2018 by Nancy Brown, Converge
Shock, dismay and fear were some of my emotions as I witnessed the resolutions passed at the Liberal Conventions in Halifax in April, 2018. In particular, the resolution put forward by the young liberals of Canada with regard to the abrogation of the 2014 Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act (PCEP Act) was alarming and disheartening. It called for the decriminalization of consensual sex work and of the purchase of sex work for those over the age of 18.
The Liberal Resolution is Not a Real Solution
The Liberal resolution would effectively decriminalize the exploiter and eliminate any protection of the young person who enters into prostitution as a teenager to meet their survival needs. Prostitution is not a choice, nor is it work but rather a system of power imbalance where one person purchases sex from another. It neglects to recognize that prostitution is inherently violent, coercive and dehumanizing and can never be safe. The preamble to the PCEP Act states that exploitation is inherent in prostitution and recognizes the social harm that is caused by the objectification of the human body and the commodification of sexual activity.
Does Canada want to become like Germany which in 2002 passed a law to legalize prostitution?
Since then, prostitution in Germany has increased up to 30% and trafficking has increased with approximately 90% of the women in prostitution coming from abroad, mainly Romania and Bulgaria. The red light district has become a highly criminal environment in the hands of organized crime. Germany is now known as the Brothel of Europe and called a pimp of the most vulnerable women.
Listen to what Ingeborg Kraus, a German Psychiatrist has to say about what has happened in her country since 2002. “Today we have flat rate brothels where you pay 50 Euros and you will get a beer, a sausage and women without any limitation. Mega-brothels have been created for the increased demand, like the “Pasha” in Cologne with 10 floors and 150 women “working” there. We are observing a reduction in the rate of payment for women: 30 Euros for sexual intercourse while the women pay around 160 Euros for a room and 25 Euros taxes per day; that means that they have to serve 6 men before starting to earn money. The violence has increased, the sex buyers have become more brutal and the sex practices more perverted and dangerous. Before the laws of 2002, the buyers had a guilty conscience. That doesn’t exist anymore. They want more and more. The language has changed, women are dehumanized and they are call, “fresh meat”, “New Goods”, that is super market language."
Defending Those Who Can’t Defend Themselves
Throughout my twenty years of ministry at Covenant House, I have witnessed the lasting damage done to those who have been bought and sold. I have seen the vulnerability of many homeless 16 to 25 year olds being taken advantage by dishonest predators. As I pondered the pain and suffering of many vulnerable young people who are struggling to survive or escape this web of violence, I recalled the words of Proverbs, “Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy.”
“Exposure to childhood trauma and adversities contributes to subsequent vulnerability to be trafficked. Many trafficked youth have experienced childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, traumatic loss, separation from caregivers, and family and community violence. Such experiences can profoundly impact social-emotional development in complex ways that affect the child’s understanding of personal safety, sexual boundaries and healthy relationships leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking. “
Child abuse has been named the boot camp or the pipeline to prostitution. So too, prostitution is a pipeline to human trafficking. Those caught in this web do not realize the reality, as many have been forced to become dependent on drugs, confused by the false promises of the perpetrators and the stress of the trauma. They are unable to speak for themselves; herefore concerned citizens need to defend the Act for their safety and future.
Research indicates that 89% of prostituted persons want to escape but were forced to remain in it because they had no other options for survival. Let’s take to heart the words of Elie Wiesel, “I swore never to be silent whenever and wherever human beings endure suffering and humiliation. We must always take sides. Neutrality helps the oppressor, never the victim. Silence encourages the tormentor, never the tormented.“
Now is a critical moment for concerned citizens to speak out for those who are silenced. Our current law needs to be protected as it rightly criminalizes the buyers of sexual services and encourages the prostituted person to exit. Many who have fallen into this web of violence, are unable to speak for themselves for many reasons such as fear for their safety, fear of arrest or deportation, lack of trust in formal systems such as law enforcement or foster care system etc. Psychological dissolution is often experienced by prostituted persons which inhibits them from speaking out.
Are we doing enough to address the ideology that dissociates the meaning of sex from love? How are we as a society, within the family unit, in our educational institutions and churches, adequately addressing the true meaning of love? What are we doing to address the amount of violence that exists within the institutions of our society?
Canada needs The PCEP Act
With its current law, Canada has become a leader and has taken a very positive, progressive step forward for demand reduction, gender equality and the elimination of violence against women. The Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act, (PCEP Act) is in compliance with the UN Palermo Agreement and respects the human rights of prostituted and trafficked women and youth while at the same time holds the buyers and profiteers accountable. Throughout the world, more and more countries are implementing this model which is an innovative form of prostitution policy. It has been adopted in Sweden (1999), South Korea (2004), Iceland (2008), Norway (2009), Canada (2014), Northern Ireland (2015) France (2016), Republic of Ireland (2017) and variations in Finland, and is under consideration in Italy, Israel and Luxembourg. Canada can continue to be a global leader in stopping gender-based violence by ensuring the consistent implementation of our laws throughout all provinces of our country.
The PCEP Act needs to be upheld and strengthened throughout our country. Without this law, we will have more missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls throughout Canada, more Robert (Willy) Pickton cases in our provinces, and more disappearances of youth along our Canadian highways (like the Highway of Tears in BC), increased violence and organized crime throughout our country. The buyers, profiteers and traffickers will not be held accountable for the injustice and harm they cause to the voiceless and most vulnerable in our society.
Legalization or full decriminalization is not the answer for Canada. It would normalize sexual exploitation of women and youth while letting the perpetrators act with impunity. Trafficking would increase and organized crime would flourish.
Please speak to your Member of Parliament, local councilor, mayor and police force to ensure PCEP Act remains and is consistently enforced throughout Canada. We cannot be silent when our brothers and sisters are suffering from such an injustice.
(A protester at a "Bring Back Our Girls" protest as they march to the presidential villa to deliver a letter to Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan in Abuja, calling for the release of schoolgirls from Chibok kidnapped by Boko Haram, May 22, 2014. Afolabi Sotunde/Reuters)
Boko Haram’s Violence Against Women and Girls Demands Justice
Blog Post by Guest Blogger for John Campbell
May 11, 2018
A protester at a "Bring Back Our Girls" protest as they march to the presidential villa to deliver a letter to Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan in Abuja, calling for the release of schoolgirls from Chibok kidnapped by Boko Haram, May 22, 2014. Afolabi Sotunde/Reuters
This is a guest blog post by Sherrie Russell-Brown. Sherrie is a researcher, consultant, and international lawyer focusing on armed conflict, gender, security,
international justice, and humanitarian law in sub-Saharan Africa. She coordinates a collaborative group of experts dedicated to promoting research and analysis of the Sahel, and, in particular, the Boko Haram insurgency. Sherrie holds a Juris Doctor and Master of Laws in human rights law from Columbia University School of Law.
Following Boko Haram’s abduction of girls from a school in Dapchi, International Crisis Group released a report in April on how to prevent future kidnappings in
Nigeria. It lays out in detail what steps the Nigerian government, foreign governments, and local actors should take to defeat Boko Haram and overcome the destruction that they have wrought. Moreover, Crisis Group also examined Boko Haram’s gender-based violence and has proposed ways to address it.
To date, not one member of Boko Haram has been prosecuted for sexual violence. Yet, as President Buhari mulls granting amnesty to repentant members of Boko Haram, justice requires accountability for their crimes, including those that are gender-based.
It is worth noting that the protocols and laws needed to do this are already in place. A core strategic objective under Pillar 3 of Nigeria's second National Action
Plan (2017-2020) for the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions is the protection of women’s and girls' rights and security and prosecution of violators of such rights. Nigeria has also ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Protocol to the
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol), enacted the Child Rights Act (CRA) and the Violence Against Persons Prohibition (VAPP) Act. However, as is often the case, the implementation of these laws, policies, agreements, and protocols is the challenge.
To be clear, both genders have been targeted by Boko Haram. In February 2014, less than two months before the Chibok girls were kidnapped, Boko Haram killed at least twenty-nine male students at the Federal Government College, Buni Yadi, in Yobe state. Men and boys have been abducted, killed, or forcibly conscripted by Boko Haram.
However, Crisis Group brings much-needed attention to the prominent role that violence against women and girls plays in Boko Haram’s ideology and actions. Girls' education, and with it girls' empowerment, are under direct attack by the group. The insurgents who returned the Dapchi girls warned residents against sending their
daughters back to school, or else they would be kidnapped again. (Fifteen-year old Leah Sharibu, the lone Christian among the Dapchi girls, refused to convert to Islam and remains in captivity.) In addition, Boko Haram has used women and girls as person-borne improvised explosive devices (PBIEDs), so-called “suicide bombers,”
more than any other terrorist group in history. By the end of 2017, 454 women and girls had been deployed or arrested in 232 incidents, which killed 1,225 people.
Reported incidents of Boko Haram rape, sexual slavery, forced marriages, and other incidents of sexual violence in northeast Nigeria increased from 644 in 2016 to 997 in 2017.
But women are more than just victims. While some are, of course, supporters of Boko Haram and perpetrators of violence themselves, they have also played a vital role in the fight against the group. In the opening scene of Black Panther, Okoye, the head of King T’Challa's all-female personal security, the Dora Milaje and Nakia, a female Wakandan intelligence officer, help rescue a group of women (and a male child soldier) who had been abducted by an extremist terror network reminiscent of Boko Haram.
In that spirit, Aisha Bakari Gombi, also known as the “Queen Hunter,” commands a band of male hunters and has helped the Nigerian military fight Boko Haram and rescue hundreds of men, women, and children in northeast Nigeria. Off the battlefield, Oby Ezekwesili, Saudatu Mahdi and Hadiza Bala Usman, cofounders of #BringBackOurGirls, have been campaigning for the return, reintegration, and rehabilitation of abductees of Boko Haram of both genders. Hamsatu Allamin has been working to change the narrative of "Boko Haram" (roughly translated as "education is a sin") to "Boko Halal" ("education is good").
One education initiative underway is an Africa-America Institute plan to introduce a new digital learning tool in Nigeria and Ghana. She has also highlighted the need for a communication strategy to counter the influence of Boko Haram. Eleanor Nwadinobi has worked to increase the participation of women and girls in peacebuilding institutions by supporting safe spaces called "peace clubs."
As Justice Louis Brandeis once remarked, "[s]unlight is said to be the best of disinfectants." Once we have acknowledged Boko Haram’s sexual and gender-based crimes, however, providing justice to survivors and victims is an essential next step.
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