Perspectives and information in support of Canada adopting the Nordic Model to address prostitution

Please look for the following articles posted in the dialogue area below:

M.PAULUS : Out of Control. On liberties and criminal developments in the redlight districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. Publié le 2014/05/06 par resources prostitution   
By Manfred Paulus, retired detective chief superintendent, Ulm/Danube, June 2013

Open letter calls for Nordic approach to prostitution in Canada
by Staff, Straight.com, Apr 23, 2014

Prostitution laws should follow Nordic model, former sex trade worker says
Activist tells Calgary panel discussion Ottawa's new legislation should criminalize the users CBC News, Feb 28, 2014

Province urges feds to use Nordic model on sex trade Targets pimps, johns rather than workers by Mary Agnes Welch, Winnipeg Free Press, 02/15/2014

French go Nordic on prostitution: new report explains why Australia should be next
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Australia 2 Dec 2013

Feminist Current 10 myths about prostitution, trafficking and the Nordic model
by Meagan Tyler, Dec 8, 2013

Buying sex should be banned in Australia
by Meagan Tyler, The Conversation, 3 December 2013

The Swedish chapter of Amnesty rejects Amnesty International’s proposal to decriminalise the purchase of sex acts
At its annual meeting in Malmö this weekend, the Swedish section will adopt a clear position against legalizing the prostitution system.
by Erik Magnusson, May 8, 2014

Former President Jimmy Carter Condemns Amnesty International UK Document “Decriminalization of Sex Work” & AI Position that Pimps and Johns Should Be “Free from Government Interference”
by Robin Morgan, April 30, 2014

London’s Police Chief Promotes ‘Nordic Model’ Following Human Trafficking Pilot Project
London, Ontario, Canada / (CFPL AM) AM 980
by Natalie Lovie, April 17, 2014

Academics Voice Support for 'Nordic Model' of Prostitution Open Letter
IB TimesBy Hannah Osborne | IB Times – Feb 26, 2014

Uncovered: Shocking investigation reveals sex trade in girls bought in Romania and sold as prostitutes in Britain
Feb 22, 2014 By Matthew Drake

What is the 'Nordic Model'?
http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/Nordic_Model_EN.pdf

Amnesty branches oppose Amnesty International’s sex industry agenda
NORMAC Spokesperson Matthew Holloway May 10, 2014 Tasmania Times

Attacking the demand for child sex trafficking
by Siddharth Kara

REED postcard campaign to support the Nordic Model in Canada "Canada can do better"
April 23rd 2014

and many more ....

Open letter calls for Nordic approach to prostitution in Canada
by Staff, Straight.com, Apr 23, 2014

Editor's note: The following open letter on the topic of prostitution in Canada has garnered over 800 signatures. It was written in response to another open letter that called for the decriminalization of sex work.

Open letter: 300 researchers call for decriminalization of sex work in Canada
Ottawa eyes Nordic model for prostitution legislation

Right Hon. Stephen Harper, Prime Minister, Leader of the
Conservative Party of Canada,
Mr. Thomas Mulcair, MP, Leader of the Official Opposition, the New
Democratic Party of Canada,
Mr. Justin Trudeau, MP, Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada,
Mr. Jean-François Fortin, MP, Interim Leader of the Bloc Québécois,
Ms. Elizabeth May, MP, Leader of the Green Party of Canada

April 23, 2014

Dear Sirs and Madam,

We—the undersigned—are women who work in different capacities to end violence against women and to protect and advance women’s rights to equality. Prostitution is a practice in which women’s subordination to men is inherent and lived out repeatedly. Consequently, we are writing to you today to urge you to support the “Nordic approach” to legislation on prostitution for Canada, because it includes legislation, intensive social supports, and public education strategies, all designed to reduce and eliminate prostitution.

We are aware of the March 27 open letter from the Gender and Sexual Health Initiative at the University of British Columbia (GSHI), which calls for decriminalization of all aspects of prostitution, including buyers and profiteers, on the grounds that this is the only “evidence‑based” policy option.

The use of the term “evidence-based” has become a smear used by those supporting the sex industry to suggest that those who oppose it in the name of women’s equality are arguing from a position of nothing more than anecdote or opinion.  The list of signatories implies that only those with formal credentials can “research” or interpret evidence.  We reject both of these premises.  Evidence about the harms of prostitution is gathered by academic researchers, survivors of prostitution and those working on the front-line. That evidence proves that prostitution is violence against women.

This is not only a dispute about evidence; it is a dispute about goals and principles, and legislators will have to decide carefully which principles they wish to uphold, and which goals they wish to pursue, for women in Canada. The evidence in the same studies and government reports cited in the GHSI letter supports intensive efforts, worldwide, to reduce and eliminate prostitution. All reports and studies on prostitution confirm that, as the Ontario Court of Appeal said in Bedford, “prostitution is inherently dangerous in virtually any circumstance.”[1] Merely attempting to reduce the ancillary dangers of prostitution is an inadequate, and in our view, discriminatory strategy.

The signatories to the GHSI letter believe that prostitution, or ‘sex work’, is sex between consenting adults; that a bright line can be drawn between ‘sex work’ and trafficking and child prostitution; and that a harm reduction strategy is all that is necessary to moderate the worst effects of the commercial sex industry.  We believe that prostitution constitutes violence against women because it is a practice of subordination and exploitation that is gendered, raced, and classed; that, as the Supreme Court of Canada found in Bedford, most women cannot be said to choose prostitution,[2] and consequently, in the experience of women, any line between prostitution, trafficking and child prostitution is more artificial than real. Therefore, we believe that a strategy that affirms the human dignity of women and girls is essential and the only approach consistent with Canada’s principles of equality.

A Women’s Equality Framework

First of all, any new approach to prostitution must be set in a women’s equality framework and reflect the fact that equality for women is a fundamental principle of Canadian law, enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and set out in human rights legislation that governs employment and services in all jurisdictions in the country.  Prostitution is a social institution that both manifests and embeds the inequality between women and men, perpetuating women’s subordination to men, and their status as sexual commodities for men’s use. In Canada, as elsewhere, men are overwhelmingly buyers and women are the ones being sold. It is not sufficient in the face of these facts to take an approach that might merely reduce the harms that surround prostitution, when prostitution itself is a reinforcement of women’s subordination.

Further, the evidence is clear, including in affidavits filed by both the claimants and the defendants in the Bedford case, that women enter into prostitution because of economic need and profound social disadvantage. As it makes no sense to penalize women for their sexual, social, and economic inequality, we endorse the legislative approach of the Nordic model, that is, to decriminalize those—usually women— who are being bought and sold, but to apply criminal sanctions to buyers, pimps, and those who profit from the sale of women’s bodies. The criminal law by itself is not a solution to the inequality problem that prostitution represents, but it is essential, in our view, that the criminal law convey a clear message about women’s equality in Canada: in this case, the message that men’s purchase of sex is an egregious and impermissible violation of equality rights.

Who is in Prostitution?

Most women in prostitution in Canada are there because of poverty, homelessness, addictions, lack of social supports, racism, and the many harsh impacts of colonialism on Aboriginal communities and families. Aboriginal women and girls are disproportionately represented in street prostitution and among women in prostitution who have been murdered. In British Columbia, as the Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP) has documented, Asian women are disproportionately represented in indoor prostitution, in venues such as massage parlours, where they are advertised to clients as ‘exotic.’ Many women enter prostitution as children; many have histories of child sexual abuse. Most say they would leave prostitution if they could.

These are well‑established facts. Prostitution is evidence of, and entrenches, sex, race, and class hierarchies. In the face of this, it is wholly inaccurate to call prostitution sex between consenting adults or to explain women’s presence in prostitution as choice, when the choice of women to be in prostitution, or to leave it, is so heavily constrained.  Prostitution for poor, racialized women in Canada cannot be called liberty.

The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) has made a public call for help to stop the buying and pimping of Aboriginal women, and to stop the poverty and abuse that funnels them into prostitution. NWAC has said that its goal is to “end the prostitution of women and girls through legal and public policy measures that recognize the state’s obligations to 1) provide for basic needs and 2) protect women and girls from male violence.”

The Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP) makes the same call. We support NWAC and AWCEP and join our voices to theirs.It is apparent from the facts about women in prostitution that concerted and comprehensive social program intervention is required to prevent women and girls from entering prostitution and to assist them to leave it.  Well‑designed interventions by Canada’s governments, with long‑term commitments to address the social and economic disadvantage of women and girls, and particularly of Aboriginal and other racialized women and girls, will be needed, not just piecemeal short‑term exit services, drop‑in centers, or safe houses. Creating conditions that minimize the risk of women entering prostitution, and genuinely helping them to leave it, requires providing women and girls with adequate alternative sources of income, including social assistance sufficient to meet basic needs, adequate housing, access to all levels of education, decent work, child care, and counseling, addiction, and mental health services.

On this point too we find the Nordic model helpful, because it is clear that criminal law, by itself, is not a sufficient solution to the profound inequality that prostitution represents. Genuine programmatic and budgetary commitments by governments are also necessary to address the deeply rooted social and economic disadvantages of women and the history of sexism, racism, and colonialism that underlie prostitution.  

Why Canada Should Not Legalize Buying, Pimping and Profiting

Legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution has been tried in the Netherlands, Germany, the state of Nevada, some states in Australia, and New Zealand. Such an approach means that governments and societies accept that there is an underclass of women (defined by some combination of poverty, race and addiction) who can continue to be exploited in prostitution, even though prostitution is inherently an institution of sex inequality and violence. We do not agree that prostitution is acceptable for any women, or that the goal of equality between women and men can be abandoned for some women.

The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) flatly rejects the prospect of indoor prostitution in legalized brothels as an advance for Aboriginal women and girls. They point out that Aboriginal women and girls who are in street prostitution are unlikely to move indoors because poverty and racism keep them in the most dangerous forms of prostitution. Even if this were not the case, NWAC finds that, over time, Aboriginal women and girls have been shifted from institution to institution by settler governments—residential schools, group homes, prisons. The brothel appears to be the most recent institution that is considered better and safer for Aboriginal women. But this is not equality for Aboriginal women and girls. As AWCEP knows from the experience of its members, indoor prostitution is no answer; it merely puts hard walls around the inequality of poor and racialized women, and leaves it unchanged.

Further, legalization and decriminalization, as an approach, renders the men who are buyers, pimps, and prostitution entrepreneurs invisible; their activities become protected, legal, and normalized. 

We believe that this is a wrong approach: men must be held accountable when they subordinate and exploit women. Equality for women cannot be achieved in Canada if we are unwilling to engage with the cruel reality that men exploit women in prostitution. Even within the limited goal that legalization sets for itself – i.e., to reduce the harms that surround prostitution – the evidence does not show that it has succeeded.  The most recent comprehensive study of prostitution and trafficking in one hundred and fifty countries finds that countries that have legalized prostitution show an increased inflow of trafficked persons, and growth in the size of the prostitution industry.[3] Government reports from Germany, the Netherlands, and New Zealand say that street prostitution persists,[4] and that there is little improvement in the conditions of women in prostitution.[5] The violence inherent in prostitution is accepted by legalization, and the violence regularly associated with prostitution does not disappear.

In addition, what is legalized and normalized is not just individual prostitution transactions, but the prostitution industry. It not only becomes legal for individual men to purchase access to women’s bodies, but also legal to own and run a business that sells access to women’s bodies, or for employers in isolated work locations to provide men access to women for sex as an aspect of employment. For Canada to take this step would be both dangerous and discriminatory.

Where Should Canada Stand?

Canada has a history of commitment to women’s equality, to racial equality, and to vigorous social programs as a means of creating a more egalitarian society in which the basic needs of all Canadians are met. In addition the rights of Aboriginal peoples, and of Aboriginal women to live free from violence, are set out in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, recently endorsed by Canada. Consistent with Canada’s long‑standing commitments to equality, we urge you now to support a Nordic‑model approach to new legislative, programmatic, and public education strategies to reduce and eliminate prostitution in Canada.

We do not accept prostitution as a solution to women’s poverty; we want something much better for Canada’s poor and racialized women and girls. We believe you do too, and we urge you to act on your commitments to women and to an egalitarian Canada.  

List of Signatories

    Hamai Abdiwahabu - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Saadatou Abdoulkarim - Militante féministe, QC, Canada
    Esohe Aghatise - Executive Director, Associazione Iroko Onlus,

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Torino, Italy
    Ti-Grace Atkinson - Radical feminist, Cambridge, MA, United States
    Michele Audette – President, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Cenen M. Bagon - Vancouver Committee for Domestic Workers and Caregivers Rights, Vancouver, BC, Cana
    Jane Bailey - B.A.S., M.I.R., LL.B., LL.M. Associate Professor, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Grace Balbutin - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Sheila Ballantyne - PhD candidate, Mining Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kat Banyard - UK Feminista, United Kingdom
    Trisha Baptie - Formerly Exploited Voices Now Educating, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kathleen Barry - Ph.D. Sociologist, Professor Emerita, Author of: Female Sexual Slavery and Prostitution of Sexuality: Global Exploitation of Women, United States
    Suzanne Baustad - Immigration and Refugee Law Paralegal, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Professor Louise Bélanger Hardy LL.B., LL.M. – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Ijose Aghatise - Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, Turin, Italy
    Roseline Iroghama Aghatise - Iroko Charity Organisation, Nigeria
    Isoken Aikpitanyi - Sex Trafficking Survivor and co founder of Associazione Ragazze di Benin City, Italy
    Dr. Ochuko Ajari - Boston, MA, United States
    Soerette Alexandre - Mémorante en linguistique, Militante féministe, Haïti
    Geneviève Allard - Scientfique en environnement, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Jess Alley - TDEV Concordia University, Montreal QC, Canada
    Gwendoline Allison - Foy Allison Law Group, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Gisèle Ampleman - Membre du comité québécois de conscientisation, QC, Canada
    Rachel Ariey-Jouglard - Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Margaretha Aronson - Member of Fredrika Bremer Förbundet, Sweden
    Association Femmes pour le Dire, Femmes pour Agir, France
    Gertrud Åström - President, the Swedish Women's Lobby
    Kelsey Atkinson - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Nancy Aubé - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Professor Constance Backhouse - B.A., LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. (HonsLSUC), LL.D. (Hons U Man), Distinguished University Professor and University Research Chair at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Roxanne Badger - Bénévole GAP, Chateaugay, QC, Canada
    Iliana Balabanova-Stoicheva - Coordinator of Bulgarian Women's Lobby, Bulgaria
    Ilaria Baldini - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Gabriela Delgado Ballesteros - Investigadora, Programa Universitario Derechos Humanos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    Ixtlan Pax Ballesteros - Azusa, CA, United States
    Jose Krisanto Ballesteros - Manila, Philippines
    Pauline Ballesteros - Azusa, CA, United States
    Paula Barber - Toronto, ON, Canada
    Pauline Baril - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Sharon Barnes - Student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cassandra Barnaby - Reception, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Claudette Bastien - Présidente du Comité d’action contre la traite humaine interne et internationale, Infirmière semi-retraitée, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Brigitte Martel Baussant - Secrétaire générale de la Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
    Rosalyn Baxandall - Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus, SUNY, Old Westbury (now CUNY Labor School), NY, United States
    Rose Beatty - Member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Huguette Beauchamp, S.M. - Travailleuse sociale retraitée mais secrétaire au conseil général des srs. De miséricorde, QC, Canada
    Julie Béchard - Centre Passerelle, Timmins, ON, Canada
    Carole Bédard - QC, Canada
    Hélène Bédard - QC, Canada
    Louise Bégin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Claire Bélanger - Saint-Nicolas, QC, Canada
    Josée Bélisle - Intervenante communautaire, Amos, QC, Canada
    Janine Benedet - LLB, LLM, SJD, Associate professor of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Sophie Bennett - UK Feminista, United Kingdon
    Christine Bickson - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Taina Bien Aime - Executive Director, Coalition Against the Trafficking in Women
    Geneva Biggers - Women’s peer support group member, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Rebecca Bishop - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cécile Bisson – QC, Canada
    Mary-Lee Bouma - Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity (REED), Vancouver, BC,
    Axelle Beniey - coordinatrice de projet, Guadeloupe
    Annette Benoit - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Josée Benoit - survivante et militante, Malartic, QC, Canada
    Sarah Benson - Chief Executive Officer, Ruhama: Frontline service to women affected by prostitution and sex trafficking, Ireland
    Summer-Rain Bentham - Squamish Nation, Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Kristen Berg - Equality Now, New York, NY, United States
    Samantha Berg - Journalist and organizer, Johnstompers.com, Portland, OR, United States
    Marina Bergadano - Law Offices, Marina Bergadano & Co., Turin, Italy
    Catie Bergeron – intervenante, CALACS, Charlevoix, QC, Canada
    Jocelyne Bernatchez - Directrice des ventes, Amos, QC, Canada
    Nicole Bernier - Animatrice provinciale, QC, Canada
    Helene Berry - RN, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Julie Bindel - Journalist, author and feminist campaigner, United Kingdom
    Lucie Bilodeau - Aide-jardinière, Ste-Christine, QC, Canada
    Francine Blais - Retraitée en Service social et à mi-temps, coordonnatrice des Ami-e-s de la Famille Internationale de la Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nadine Blais - Enseignante au cégep de l'Outaouais, Travailleuse sociale de formation (niveau maitrise), Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Stassy Blais - Étudiante en technique de travail social, Amos, QC, Canada
    Annie Blouin - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Granby, QC, Canada
    Linda Boisclair - Responsable du comité de la condition féminine du Conseil central du Montréal métropolitain-CSN, Longueuil, QC, Canada
    Pierrette Boissé - Responsable du dossier sur la traite humaine à la Congrégation de Notre-Dame, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Gabrielle Boissonneault - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Annick Boissonneault - travailleuse sociale, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Sophie Bolduc - Stagiaire au CALCS de Chateauguay, Montréal, QC, Canada=
    Antonia Bonito - Turin Municipality Police Force, Turin, Italy
    Bernard Bosc - Réseau féministe “Ruptures”, QC, Canada
    Claudia Bouchard - travaille au quotidien avec des femmes qui ont été dans la prostitution, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Diane Bouchard - Retraitée, Charlevoix, QC, Canada
    France Boucher - Avocate et chargée de cours à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Boucher, Mahara - ASETS Adminstrative Assistant, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Nadjet Bouda - Responsable administrative à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Étudiante à la maitrise en science politique à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Claudie Bougon-Guibert - Conseil national des femmes françaises
    Carole Boulebsol - Sociologue Ma., Montréal, QC, Canada
    Ginette Bourdon - Infirmière retraitée, Brossard, QC, Canada
    Jeannine Bourget - Animatrice, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nadine Bouteilly-Dupont - President, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
    Lise Bouvet - Gender Studies Researcher, Switzerland
    Susan B. Boyd - F.R.S.C. Professor, Chair in Feminist Legal Studies Faculty of Law at Allard Hall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christine Boyle - Professor Emeritus States, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Valérie Brancquart - Québec, QC, Canada
    Elizabeth Briemberg - Retired Supreme Court of BC Family Conciliator, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Pascale Brosseau - Intervenante, Lévis, QC, Canada
    Twiss Butler - Member Abolish Prostitution Now Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW International), National Organization for Women, United States
    Serena Caldarone - Resistenza Femminista, Italy
    Annie Campbell - Director, Women’s Aid Federation, Northern Ireland
    Chiara Carpita - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Francesca Carpita - Italy
    Melina Caudo - Executive Director, Associazione Progettarsì, Turin, Italy
    Martha Centola - Vice President, Associazione Iroko Onlus, Turin, Italy
    Karen Cody - President of the Board of Directors for The Organization for Prostitution Survivors, Seattle, WA, United States
    Mylène Collin - Intervenante, Québec, QC, Canada
    Jennifer Conkie - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Lynda Coplin - retired teacher, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Kelly Coulter - Drug Policy Advocate, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Larissa Crack - Northern Women's Connection, Canada
    Mary DeFusco - Esq. Director of Training and Recruitment, Defender Association of Philadelphia, United States
    Anastasia DeRosa - Front line crisis worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Francine Descarries - Ph.D, Professeure et Directrice scientifique du Réseau québécois en études féministes (RéQEF) UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Tamar Dina - Music Liberatory, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Dr. Gail Dines - Professor of Sociology, Wheelock College, Boston, MA, United States
    Caryn Duncan - MA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Catherine Dunne - Act to Prevent Trafficking, Ireland
    Anna Edman - Sweden
    Teresa Edwards - B.A., JD. Director, International Affairs and Human Rights, In-House Legal Counsel, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Gunilla S. Ekberg  - Former special advisor on prostitution and human trafficking to the Swedish government, human rights lawyer, Canada and Sweden
    Fiona Elvines - Operations Coordinator, Rape & Sexual Support Centre Croydon, UK
    Jimena Eyzaguirre -  M.Sc., M.R.M. Senior Climate Change Specialist, ESSA Technologies Ltd. Ottawa Chapter Co-chair, Canada-Mathare Education Trust
    Melissa Farley - Ph.D., Prostitution Research & Education, San Francisco, CA, United States
    Colleen Fuller - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Professor Karen Boyle - Chair in Feminist Media Studies, University of Stirling, UK
    Easton Branam - Seattle, WA, United States
    Chantal Brassard - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Granby, QC, Canada
    Marie-Claude Brault - QC, Canada
    Annick Brazeau - Travailleuse sociale, Baccalauréat en travail social, Diplôme d’études collégiales en techniques policières, Certificat universitaire en développement international, Étudiante à la maîtrise en travail social
    Hélène Brazeau - Professeure au cégep de l'Outaouais, Maîtrise en psychoéducation de l'UQO, Cantley, QC, Canada
    Cathy Brennan - Gender Identity Watch, United States
    Janie Breton - Féministe, QC, Canada
    Judith Bridge - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Dr. Gwen Brodsky - LLB, LLm, PhD, Distinguished Visiting Scholar, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada
    Cleta Brown - LLB, LLM, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kimberly Brown - Equality Now, Nairobi, Kenya
    Nancy Brown - SC, OBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Alma Bulawan - President, BUKLOD Survivors' Group, Olongapo, Philippines
    Autumn Burris - Survivors for Solutions, United States
    Dr. Shauna Butterwick - Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Elizabeth Cahill - St John’s, NL, Canada
    Laure Caille - General Secretary, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
    Tulsi Callichum - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Callie Fleeger – Student, Talent, OR, United States
    Associate Professor Angela Cameron BA, LLB, LLM, PhD – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Laura Capuzzo - Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
    Marie-Josée Carbonneau - Agente de sécurité, Amos, QC, Canada
    Elda Carly - Équipes d'Action Contre le Proxénétisme, Paris, France
    Chantale Caron - Agricultrice, St-Roch-de-Richelieu, QC, Canada
    Carole Cayer – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Mercier, QC, Canada
    Ida Centola - Avigliana, Italy
    Pat Cervelli - Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Tuolumne, CA, United States
    Gaétane Chabot - Saint-Laurent-de-l’île-d'Orléans, QC, Canada
    Maude Chalvin - Chargée de projet intersectionnalité et agente de communication RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Yuly Chan - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Jaclyn Chang - MA, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Elaine Charkowski – United States
    Emmanuelle Charlebois - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Alexandra Charles - Ordförande, Stockholm, Sweden
    Vanessa Chase - Board Member, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christiana Cheng - PhD, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Gaétane Chénier - Intervenante communautaire, Amos, QC, Canada
    Missy Chirprin - Radio Host/Producer, United States.
    Youngsook Cho - Korean Women's Association United, South Korea
    Jomini Chu - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kim Chu - University of Calgary Nursing, Vancouver, BC, Canada,
    Mélanie Clément - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Christina Clément - femme, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Conseil national des femmes françaises
    Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
    Jeannine Cornellier - SNJM, Association des religieuses pour les Droits des femmes, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Luce Côté - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Madeleine Côté - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Véronique Couillard – Intervenante, CALACS Charlevoix, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Dr. Maddy Coy - Reader in Sexual Exploitation and Gender Equality, London Metropolitan University, UK
    Annie Crepin - France
    Maisie Faith J. Dagapioso - Woman Health Philippines, Zamboanga City
    Madeleine Dagenais - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Octavia Dahl - United States
    Florence Daigneault - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Lucie Daigneault - Comptable à l'administration locale de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Laval, QC, Canada
    Mathilde Darton - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada
    Mélissa Dauphin - Artiste engagée, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Jo-Anne David - Centre Colibri, Barrie, ON, Canada
    Stephanie Davies-Arai – United Kingdom.
    Shelagh Day - CM, Director, Poverty and Human Rights Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Docteure Michèle Dayras - présidente de SOS sexisme, France
    Aurora Javate De Dios - Executive Director, Women and Gender Institute, Miriam College, Philippines
    Blathnaid de Faoite - Daughter of a survivor of prostitution, Ireland
    Mia de Faoite - Survivor of Prostitution & Philosophy student at The National University of Ireland, Ireland
    Yolande de La Bruère - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Veronica DeLorme - BA, MA, Retired, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Yvette Delorme - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Theresa Delory – QC, Canada
    Christiane Delteil - Présidente d'honneur du CIDFF 34, Membre du CT de l'Amicale du Nid "La babotte", Montpellier, France
    Line Demers - Adjointe administrative, Diplôme de commis-comptable, Maison d’hébergement pour elles des Deux Vallées, QC, Canada
    Kim Deniger - Policière, DEC en Techniques Policières, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Amelia Denny-Keys - Student, Langley, BC, Canada
    Linda Denny - MSW, RSW, Langley, BC, Canada
    Annie Denoncourt - Criminologue, Intervenante jeunesse, Ste-Brigitte-des-Saults, QC, Canada
    Claire Desaint - Vice-President, Réussir l'égalité femmes-hommes, France=
    Lise Desrochers - Éducatrice retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Carmen Dion - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada
    Françoise Dion - Donnacona, QC, Canada
    Christine Dionne - Employée du gouvernement du Canada - école de la fonction du Canada, Spécialiste en apprentissage et en développement, Baccalauréat en éducacion de l'anglais langue seconde de l'UQAM, Diplôme d'éducation aux adultes du Collège de Vancouver, Diplôme de business administration du Collège de Kingston, ON, Canada
    Dr. Peggy Dobbins - Port Lavaca, TX, United States
    Winifred Doherty - Good Shepherd Sister and NGO representative to the United Nations
    Isabelle Dostie, intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Francine Doucette - Secrétaire et aussi amie dans la famille internationale de la miséricorde, St-Eustache, QC, Canada
    Siméon Doucette - Retraité de la compagnie Bell canada et ami dans la fam. Int. De la miséricorde, St-Eustache, QC, Canada
    Jennifer Drew - Consultant to Scottish Women Against Pornography, United Kingdom
    Marie Drouin - Militante et survivante de la prostitution, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Laurie Drummond - Member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kim Dubé - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Geneviève Duché - présidente de l’Amicale du Nid, France
    Micheline Dufour - Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Rose Dufour - Anthropologue, Directrice générale et fondatrice de la Maison De Marthe, QC, Canada
    Caroline Dufresne - intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Nathalie Duhamel - Coordonnatrice RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Monique Dumais - O.S.U., Coordonnatrice pour l'association des religieuses pour les
    Droits des femmes, ARDF
    Claudette Dumont-Smith - Executive Director, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Lyne Duplain - Intervenante CALACS Charlevoix, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Arianne Duplessis - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Genevieve Dupuis - Travailleuse sociale CALACS de l’Outaouais, BAC en travail social, Aylmer, QC, Canada
    Ilaria Durigon - Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
    Lotte Kristine Dysted - Praktikant hos Danners videncenter, NGO Danner, Denmark=
    Eaves For Women, United Kingdom
    Dele Edokpayi - Esq., Dele Edokpayi and Co Law Chambers, Benin City, Nigeria
    F. Elodie Ekobena - Agente de pastorale sociale Villeray, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Vera Chigbufue Elue - Legal Counsel, Chicago Municipality Law Office, Chicago, United States
    Jean Enriquez - Executive Director, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Asia Pacific
    Priscilla Eppinger - Associate Professor of Religion, Chairperson of the Peace Studies Committee at Graceland University, United States
    Carla Francesca Erie - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Professor Maria Eriksson - Professor of Social Work, School for Health, Care, and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Sweden
    Dr. Elizabeth Evans - Lecturer in Politics, University of Bristol, UK
    Natasha Falle - SEXTRADE101, ON, Canada
    Danielle Fay - BAA, Thérapeute en santé globale et naturelle, St-Alfred, QC, Canada
    Madeleine Ferland - Criminologue, Cowansville, QC, Canada
    Elizabetta Ferrero - Turin, Italy
    Suzanna Finley - Equality Now, New York, NY, United States
    Mia Finn - Mother, Langley, BC, Canada
    Jean Fong – Frontline anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Janick Fontaine - Intervenante sensibilisation, Technicienne en travail social, Thurso, QC, Canada
    Suzanne Fortier - militante, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Mireille Fortin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nicole Fortin - Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Valérie Fortin - infirmière clinicienne, Brossard, QC, Canada
    Nicole Fouché - Présidente de Réussir l'égalité femmes-hommes, Cherchs associée, CNRS, Céna-mascipo-EHESS, Paris, France
    Isabelle Fournier – Intervenante, CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Monique Fournier - Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, QC, Canada
    Lindsey Fox – Victoria, BC, Canada
    Kirsty Foy - Foy Allison Law Group, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Maggie Fredette - Coordonnatrice intervention CALACS, Sherbrooke, PQ, Canada
    Frappier, Julie - travailleuse CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Lina Fucà - Turin, Italy
    Carolyne Gagné - Professeur, Granby, QC, Canada
    Émilie Gagnon - Infographe, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
    Gabrielle Gagnon - Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Jocelyne Gagnon - Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Marielle Gagnon - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Mariette Gagnon - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Michèle Garceau - Citoyenne, Lachine, QC, Canada
    Joane Garon - Intervenante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Elizabeth Gautchi - Med, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Chantal Gauthier - Auxilière aux familles à domicile, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Noga Gayle - PhD, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Angela Gbemisola – United Kingdom
    Yolande Geadah - Author, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Associate Professor Daphne Gilbert BA, LLB, LLM – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Rosanna Giorgietti - Italy
    Catriona Gold - Executive Member CUPE 2278, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Leah Gruenpeter Gold - PhD Philosophy Dept. Tel Aviv University, Israel
    Tamara Gorin - Port Moody, BC, Canada
    Samantha Grey - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Associate Professor Vanessa Gruben B.Sc.H, LLB, LLM – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Jacqueline Gullion - MA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Irit Hakim - Safe World for Women, United Kingdom, Correspondent in Israel
    Carol Hanisch - Editor, MeetingGroundOnLine.org, Ellenville, NY, United States
    Hanne Helth - Board Member, Danish Women's Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Terrie Hendrickson - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Mary Honeyball - Member of the European Parliament, United Kingdom
    Donna M. Hughes - B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Professor & Carlson Endowed Chair, Gender & Women's Studies Program, University of Rhode Island, United States
    Ghada Jabbour - KAFA (enough) Violence & Exploitation, Lebanon
    Professor Martha Jackman - LL.B., LL.M., L.S.M. Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Lone Alice Johansen - Head of Information, The Secretariat of the Shelter Movement, Oslo, Norway
    Hedwig Johl - NGO in special consultative status with ECOSOC, Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd
    Guðrún Jónsdóttir - talskona Stígamóta, Stígamótum, Reykjavík, Iceland
    Helen Kelsey - Status of Women Committee, Surrey Teachers Association, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Hilla Kerner - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Jennifer Kim - BA Philosophy, Vancouver, BC, CanadA
    Daisy Kler - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Patsy Kolesar - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Katherine B. Lawrence - J.D. Member, Board of Directors, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jessica Lee - Front-line Crisis Worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Dorchen A. Leidholdt - Director, Center for Battered Women's Legal Services, Sanctuary for Families, New York
    Marissa Lorenz - Colorado, United States
    Laura L. Lovett - Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States
    Brenda Lucke - RN, BSN, BA, GNC(C), Langley, BC, Canada
    Ilaria Maccaroni - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Ainsley MacGregor - Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Grace Malkihara - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Malka Marcovich - Historian and feminist writer, International consultant, Paris, France
    Ane Mathieson - Fulbright Fellow & Staff with the Organization for Prostitution Survivors, Seattle, Unites States
    Philippe Mayer - Géomaticien, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Paola Mazzei - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Geraldine McCarthy - Act to Prevent Trafficking, Ireland
    Annie McCombs – Kalamazoo, MI, United States
    Maureen McGowan – New York, NY, United States
    Sheila McIntyre - Retired Professor of Law, University of Ottawa; specializing in Constitutional and Human Rights Law, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Nancy J. Meyer - Hyattsville, MD, United States
    Ashley Milbury – MA, Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Michelle Miller - DMin, Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kathy Miriam - PhD, Brooklyn, NY, United States
    Adrienne Montani - Child Rights Advocate, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Michele Morek - PhD. UNANIMA International Inc. an ECOSOC-accredited NGO of the United Nations
    Dr. Helen Mott - Bristol Fawcett, United Kingdom
    Meghan Murphy - Journalist, Canada
    Ana Maria R. Nemenzo - National Coordinator, Woman Health Philippines
    Clare Nolan - Srs of the Good Shepherd, New York, NY, United States
    Celia Nord - Archaeologist, Lee Creek, BC, Canada
    Aibhlín O’Leary - Anti-Trafficking Project Coordinator Immigrant Council of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
    Catherine Olivier - Enseignante au collegial, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Sonia Ossorio - President, National Organization for Women, New York, NY, United States
    Marie-Noël Paradis - Intervenante, Québec, PQ, Canada
    María Paredes - Student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    So Eyun Park - BMLSc., Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Maggie Parks - Chief Executive, Women’s Rape and Sexual Abuse Centre, Cornwall, UK
    Niovi Patsicakis - B.Ed, M.Ed., Special Education Consultant, SENG-trained facilitator, Canada
    Dr. Jenny Petrak – MSc, PsychD
    Heidi Petrak - Msc. Nursing Professor, BC, Canada
    Kathleen Piovesan – Ph.D. Candidate, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States
    Dianne Post - Attorney, Phoenix Women Take Back the Night, Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    Brittney Powell - Feminist, BA, Nelson, BC, Canada
    Dr. Helen Pringle - School of Social Sciences UNSW, Sydney, Australia
    Chanelle Ram - Feminist nursing student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Janice G. Raymond - Professor Emerita of Women's Studies and Medical Ethics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States
    Yasmin Rehman - Women's rights campaigner, member of the End Violence Against Women Coalition Board, UK
    Sanda Rodgers - Emeritus Professor, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Nina Rose, MD - Vice President, Swedish Medical Women's Association, Sweden
    Isabelle Rouillard - Intervenante, QC, Canada
    Marion Runcie - Vancouver BC, Canada
    Louisa Russell - Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Persia Rutchinski - Sydney, Australia
    Susanne Rutchinski - BA, graphic designer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Valentina S., - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Peggy Sakow - Founding Co-Chair and Member, Temple Committee Against Human
    Trafficking, Temple Emanu-El-Beth Sholom, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Julieta Montaño Salvatierra - Abogada, Directora de la Oficina Jurídica Para la Mujer
    Yolanda Sanchez-Contreras - Communications Coordinator GSIJP Office Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd (An NGO in special consultative status with ECOSOC, UN)
    Aida F. Santos-Maranan - President & Executive Director, Board of Trustees Consultant on Gender, Development, Human Rights, Philippines
    Emma Scott - Director, Rights of Women, London, UK
    Amy Sebes - Founder, Association of Albanian Girls and Women (AAGW), Albania
    Brittney Sharma - Activist, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Idit Harel Shemesh - Machon Toda'a Awareness Center, Israel
    Sr. Terry Shields - MSHR President, Dawn's Place, Philadelphia, United States
    Associate Professor Penelope Simons – BA, LLB, LLM, PhD, Honours: Human Security Fellow 2002-2004 Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Ann Simonton - Media Watch, United States
    Stephanie-Grace Skrobisz - Santa Cruz, CA, United States
    Cherry Smiley - Nlaka’pamux/Thompson and Dine’/Navajo Nations, co-founder of Indigenous Women Against the Sex Industry, BC, Canada
    Keira Smith-Tague - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Linnea W. Smith - MD, North Carolina, United States
    Silvia Elida Ortiz Solis - Representante del Grupo Civil VI.D.A, Torreon, Mexico
    Lisa Sparrow - Skowkale First Nation, Front-line anti-violence worker Chilliwack, BC, Canada
    Emily Spence - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ivana Stazio – Italy
    Lisa Steacy - BA, front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Terrie Strange - Organizing for Women’s Liberation, Yuma, AZ, United States
    Katie Streibel - Transition House Worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Annie Sugier - President, Ligue du Droit International des Femmes, Paris, France
    Eun Soon Suh - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Eva-Britt Svensson - former Member of the European Parliament, Sweden
    Monina Geaga - Secretary-General, SARILAYA, Philippines
    Jenny Geng - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Mylène Geoffroy - Intervenante communautaire, Saint-Jean-de-Matha, QC, Canada
    Carol Giardina - Asst Professor, History Dept. Queens College, NY, United States
    Lucia Giffi - Turin, Italy
    Lise Giguère   - QC, Canada
    Marcella Gilardoni - Gilardoni Law Offices, Turin, Italy
    Dr. Aisha K. Gill - Reader in Criminology, University of Roehampton, UK
    Marie-Chanel Gillier – New Delhi, India
    Jay Ginn - Older Feminists Network, United Kingdom
    France Giroux - Coiffeuse, Granby, QC, Canada
    Phyllis Giroux - S.C., M.A.(J), Kelowna, BC, Canada
    Irene  Goodwin - Director, Evidence to Action, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Sonya Grenier - intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Leanore Gough - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Francine Gravel - Réceptioniste à l'Infirmerie de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Terrebonne, QC, Canada
    Arlana Green - Victim Services Support worker, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Élaine Grisé - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Catherine Guay-Quirion - Étudiante universitaire à temps plein, Amos, QC, Canada
    Julie Guibord – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
    Joana Guillaume - Professeure de philosophie, Études juridiques, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Susanna Gulin - Finland
    Bernadette Gullion - Educator, BC, Canada
    Czarina M. Gutierrez - B.A., BC, Canada
    Francine Hamel - Retraitée, Diplômes de Maîtrise en littérature et Maîtrise en éducation (counselling de carrière), QC, Canada
    Nicole Hamel – coordonnatrice, CALACS, Lac-à-la-Tortue, PQ, Canada
    Joyce Harris - Chair Sisters of St. Ann B. C. Social Justice Committee, BC, Canada
    Jayme Hass - Junior Policy Analyst / Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Arnprior, ON
    Karah Hawkins - Victim Advocate CEASE, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Katherine Hébert-Metthé - Consultante sur l'hypersexualisation, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Orla Hegarty – NL, Canada
    Cathryn Henley - President, Canadian Federation of University Women Cranbrook Club, Cranbrook, BC, Canada
    Céline Héon - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Loralie Hettler – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christine Honor - Australia
    Myriam Houde - Criminologue au Service de police de la Ville de Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Bernett Huang - Archival Studies, Fu Ren University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jade Hudon - QC, Canada
    Charlotta Huldt-Ramberg - Member of the board or the UN Women National Committee, Sweden
    Jacqui Hunt - Equality Now, London, United Kingdom
    Patricia Hynes - Retired Professor of Environmental Health, Boston University and Director, Traprock Center for Peace and Justice, Greenfield, MA, United States
    Valentina Iamotti - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Chantal Ismé - Organisatrice communautaire à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Cynthia Jacques - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Suzanne Jay - MA, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Patricia Jean - Linguiste, Féministe, Haïti
    Rhéa Jean - Ph. D in Philosophy (Laval University), Postdoctoral fellow at the
    University of Luxembourg
    Kimberly Jerome - Bookkeeper, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Sonya Johal - BSc, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Natasha Johnson - Graphic Designer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Valerie Judge - MBA, Management Consultant, Ireland
    Justice for Girls, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ludmila Karabaciska  - Étudiante à l’Université Concordia, Applied human science, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Annpôl Kassis - Paris, France
    Soka Handinah Katjasungkana - LBH-Apik, Semarang, Indonesia
    Ranjit Kaur - Ex Magistrate, ex-Director of Rights of Women UK, Lawyer, United Kingdom
    Roisin Kelly - Ireland
    Marilyn Kempf - Équipes d'Action Contre le Proxénétisme, Paris, France
    K. Kilbride - Surrey, BC, Canada
    Morgan King - Australia
    Ann Kirkey – Toronto, ON, Canada
    Antonia Kirkland - Equality Now, New York, United States
    Dr. Renate Klien - Spinifex Press, Australia
    Donée-Maude Kobin - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Donna Christie Kolkey - member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Monica Krake - Communications Director, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Izabela Krekora - Manager of fund development, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cathrine Linn Kristiansen – Norway
    Leanne Kwan - PharmD, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Renée Labrie - St-Jean-de-l’île-d'Orléans, QC, Canada
    Sophie Labrie - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Bromont, QC, Canada
    Maryse Lafleur - QC, Canada
    Isabelle Lafontaine - Étudiante au doctorat en travail social à l’Université de Montréal, Auxiliaire de recherche, Intervenante à l’association des familles monoparentales et recomposées de l’Outaouais, Professeure à la cité collégiale aux programmes de techniques de travail social et d’éducation spécialisée, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Judy Lafontaine, intervenante, CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Allison Laing - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jennifer E. Laing - RN, BScN, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Monique, S.M. Lallier - Supérieure générale de l'Institut des Soeurs de miséricorde de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Lee Lakeman - Women’s rights advocate, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ève Lamont - Réalisatrice, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nancy Langlois - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Catherine Lapointe - Canada
    Ghislaine Laporte - S.N.J.M., QC, Canada
    Marai Larasi - MBE, M.A. Executive Director, Imkaan, UK
    Marilyn Larocque - R.H.S.J.  Kingston, ON, Canada
    Myriam Larocque - Intervenante, Étudiante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Trine Porret Randahl Larsen - President, Women’s Council in Denmark (Kvinderådet)
    Gemma Laser - Belfast, ME, United States
    Widlande Laurol - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Claudia Lavigueur – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Ste-Clotilde, QC, Canada
    Marie-Josée Lavoie - Secrétaire-administratrice RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Annette Lawson - Chair, the National alliance of Women's Organizations, United Kingdom
    M. Paule Lebel - Membre de la coordination du Québec de la marche mondiale des femmes, QC, Canada
    Aurélie Lebrun, PhD - QC, Canada
    Marie-Paule Lebrun - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Brigitte Lechenr - Woman, United Kingdom
    Patricia Leclair - Militante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marie Lecomte - Vice President, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
    Alice Lee - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Young Sun Lee - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Éliane Legault-Roy - Responsable des communications à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Maitrise en science politique, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Ronitin Lentin - University Professor, Ireland
    Barbara Leon - Watsonville, CA, United States
    Carla Lesh - Kingston, NY, United States
    Constance Létourneau - Membre du Comité de Montréal contre la traite des personnes, QC, Canada
    Guilaine Levesque - Coordonnatrice CALACS, Baie-Comeau, PQ, Canada
    Lévesque, Sandra - intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Jacqueline Lewis - Emergency Medical Technician & Front line crisis worker at Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Maureen Lewis – Red Deer, AB, Canada
    Raïssa Leyan’Simbi - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Jytte Lindgaard - Lawyer, member of The Danish National Observatory on Violence Against Women
    Linklater, Sheila - Director of Finance, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Pak Ka Liu - Victim Services Medical Support Worker, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Josée Longchamps - Thérapeute, Tingwick, QC, Canada
    Letizia Longo - Accountant, Turin, Italy
    Lovely Jean Louis - Mémorante en lingUnited Statesitique et en études juridiques, Militante féministe, Haïti
    Emma Luke - Occupational Therapist, Australia
    Nathalie Lussier - Secrétaire-comptable, Granby, QC, Canada
    br/>     Linda MacDonald - Persons Against NST, Canada
    R. MacKenzie - Feminist campaigner, Scotland
    Alison Luke - Macquarie University, Sydney,  Australia
    Eliana Maestri - Feminist Group, Birmingham, UK
    Dr. Arianna Maffiotti - Turin Local Health Services, Moncalieri (TO), Italy
    Sarah M. Mah - BSc, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Sylvie Mantha - Chef Division recherche, développement et stratégie organisationnelle du Service de police de Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Maude Marcaurelle - Intervenante sociale, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC, Canada
    Berthe Marcotte - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Louise Marcotte - Survivante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Lorna Martin - Executive Assistant, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Angela Martinez - TTS, Coordonatrice des services d’interventions du Calacs francophone d’Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Virginia Martinez - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Annalise Masear-Gough – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kristine Massey - Lecturer in Criminal Psychology, Canterbury Christchurch University, UK
    Maureen Master - Human Rights Lawyer, United States
    Jade Mathieu - Intervenante CALACS de Chateauguay, St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
    Andrea Matolcsi - Equality Now, London, UK
    Diane Matte - Activiste féministe, Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Maria Grazia Mauti - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Paula May - Experte en ressources humaines, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Dr. Melanie McCarry - Guild Senior Research Fellow, Connect Centre for International Research on Gender and Harm, University of Central Lancashire, UK
    Caitlin McKellar - Board Member, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Myriam Meilleur – Stagiaire, CALACS Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Chiara Melloni - Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
    Émilie Mercier-Roy - Survivante de la prostitution et co-fondatrice du Gîte L'Autre porte, Val-d'Or, QC, Canada
    Gunhild Mewes - Germany
    Jodie Millward - MCP, CCC, Aboriginal Family Counselor, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Suzy Mingus - Accountant, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Shiloh Minor - Teacher, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Phyllis Minsky - Teacher and Aboriginal Advocate, Queen Elizabeth Secondary School, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Rachel Moran - Founding Member of SPACE International (Survivors of Prostitution-Abuse Calling for Enlightenment), Ireland
    Magdala Moreau - Mémorante en linguistique, Militante féministe, Haïti
    Marthe Moreau - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Rachael Morgan – Student, Australia
    Émilie Morin-Rivest - Intervenante à la maison d'hébergement pour elles des deux vallées, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Julie Charbonneau Morin - Éducatrice spécialisée, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marcelle Morin – QC, Canada
    Nathalie Morin - Commis comptable, Amos, QC, Canada
    Libby Morrison - United Kingdom
    Françoise Morvan - Vice-présidente de la Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
    Rebecca Mott - Survivor of indoor prostitution, United Kingdom
    Jeanne Françoise Mouè - La Maison, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Debs Munn - Refugee Settlement Worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Lily Munroe - Women’s rights advocate and abolitionist, Australia
    Jeannine Nadeau - Infirmière, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Marie-Michelle Nault - Survivante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Amy Nahwegahbow - Senior Policy Analyst/ Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON
    Frederica Newell - Ireland
    Donna-Marie Newfield - Therapist, Canada
    Kendra Newman - Heiltsuk Nation, front line anti-violence worker, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Liette Nobert - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Jane Norlund – Norway
    Dr. Caroline Norma - Lecturer in Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia
    Ana Novakovic – Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Zdenka Novakovic - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Daniella Nunes-Taveira - Intervenante à la maison d'amitié - télécommunications à l'hôpital d'Ottawa, Technique de réadaptation et de justice pénale et présentement à l'université en criminologie, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Dr. Monica O'Connor - Independent Researcher, Ireland
    Maura O’Donohue - Doctor, Ireland
    Katrin Öberg - Sweden
    Lis Ehmer Olesen - Board member of the Women’s Council and The Danish National Observatory on Violence Against Women, Denmark
    Maren Ollman - Turin, Italy
    Kajsa Olsson – Sweden
    Alina Olszewska - Turin, Italy
    Blessing Osatohanmwen - Turin, Italy
    Oti Anukpe Ovrawah - Director, Nigerian Human Rights Commission, Abuja, Nigeria
    Angel Love Owens – Perth, Australia
    Geneviève Pagé - Phd, Professeure de science politique à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC,   Canada
    Karina Painchaud - QC, Canada
    Celeste Pang - Freelance Bookkeeper, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Monique Paradis - Enseignante retraitée, QC, Canada
    Giulia Parm - Turin, Italy
    Carla Pastorino - Genova, Italy
    Kim Pate – Executive Director, Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Yolaine Paul - Responsable de bibliothèque, Études administratives et comptable, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Sokie Paulin - Glendale, CA, United States
    Françoise Pellerin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Gisèle Pellerin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Céline Pelletier - Maison Interlude, Hawkesbury, ON, Canada
    Lise Perras - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Julie-Anne Perrault - Féministe, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nathalie Perreault - Travailleuse culturelle et féministe (abolitionniste), Montréal, QC, Canada
    Bridget Perrier - SexTrade101, ON, Canada
    Marisa Perrone - Turin, Italy
    Gaëtane Pharand - Centre Victoria, Sudbury, ON, Canada
    Jacqueline Picard – QC, Canada
    Stéphanie Picard - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Elizabeth A. Pickett - LL.M, ON, Canada
    Ellen Pilcher – Activist & Writer, United Kingdom
    Candice Pilgrim – Lawyer, Belleville, ON, Canada
    Maudy Piot - Présidente de l'Association Femmes Pour le Dire, Femmes pour Agir, France
    Marie-Christine Plante - Ph.D. candidate sociology, UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Anne Plourde - Doctorante en science politique UQAM, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ, Canada
    Monique Potin - Bibliothécaire et féministe, Val-d’Or, QC, Canada
    Claudette Poupart - Retraitée, Boucherville, PQ, Canada
    Jalysha Pratap – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Colette Price - Midwife, Feminist, NY, United States
    Claudia Quendo - Turin, Italy
    Marielle Quenneville - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Suzanne Quinn - Réseau femmes sud-ouest, Sarnia, ON, Canada
    Claudia Ramirez - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Sandra Ramos - Founder/Executive Director, Strengthen Our Sisters, Shelter and Advocacy for homeless/battered women and children, NJ, United States
    Natalie Ranspot - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jody Raphael - Visiting Professor of Law, Depaul University, United States
    Anne Rasmussen - LivaRehab, Denmark
    Christelle Raspolini - Présidente du comité Ni putes ni soumises de Guadeloupe, Le gosier, Guadeloupe
    Anyta Raymond - Reviseur, Cowansville, QC, Canada
    Anber Raz - Equality Now, London, UK
    Sarah Mélodie Razafintsehere - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Jennifer Reed - Rain and Thunder Collective, MA, United States
    Stephanie Reifferscheid - BA, Women’s Advocate and counselor for more than 25 years, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jennifer Remnant – United Kingdom
    Sandrine Ricci - Phd Student and Assistant professor (UQAM), Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Hélène Richard - Intervenante auprès des femmes, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Mylène Richer - Éducatrice en garderie, Beauharnois, QC, Canada
    Jenny Rickmann - Nurse, Germany
    Chantelle Rideout - MFA University of New Brunswick, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Nella Righetti - Turin, Italy
    Cossette Rivera - Equality Now, New York, United States
    Haile Rivera - New York, United States
    Chantal Robitaille - Intervenante CALACS Chateauguay, Beauharnois, QC, Canada
    Eleanor Roffman - Ed.D. Professor and Director of Field Training, Division of Counseling and Psychology, Graduate School of Arts and Social Sciences, Lesley University, MA, United States
    Caitlin Roper - WA State Coordinator, Collective Shout, Australia
    Carissa Ropponen - BA, Executive and Development Assistant, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Garine Roubinian - Rain and Thunder Collective, MA, United States
    Nayiree Roubinian - Rain and Thunder Collective, MA, United States
    Justine Rouse-Lamarre - Étudiante à la maîtrise en histoire à l'UQAM, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
    Gerardine Rowley – Ruhama, Ireland
    Lorraine Roy - Militante et survivante de la prostitution, St-Jérôme, QC, Canada
    Michèle Roy - Organisatrice communautaire, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Sylvie Roy - Désigner, St-Pie, QC, Canada
    Rita Ruel - Enseignante retraitée, QC, Canada
    Assistant Professor Rakhi Ruparelia B.Sc., B.S.W., LL.B.  M.S.W., LL.M. – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Dr. Emma Rush - Lecturer in Ethics and Philosophy, Charles Stuart University, Australia
    Roweena Russell – United Kingdom
    Marie-Claude Saindon - Intervenante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Anaïs Salamon - Bibliothécaire en chef bibliothèque d'études islamiques de l’Université McGill, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Roberta Salper - Resident Scholar, Women's Studies Research Center, Brandeis University Boston, MA, United States
    Myles Sanchez - President, Bagong Kamalayan Prostitution Survivors' Collective, Manila, Philippines
    Mélanie Sarroino - LL.M., Agente de liaison et de promotion RQCALACS (Regroupement québécois des centres d’aide et de lutte contre les agressions à caractère sexuel), Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Jeanne Sarson - Persons Against Non-State Torture, Canada
    Katharina Sass - Norway
    Kathryn Scarbrough - PhD, East Brunswick, NJ, United States
    Sarah Schwartz - United States
    Karen Segal - B.A, JD candidate 2014, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Solveig Senft - Abolitionist, Member of Terre des Femmes, Germany
    Jonnie Sharp – NC, United States
    Carole Shea - Militante, Rawdon, QC, Canada
    Professor Elizabeth Sheehy - LLB, LLM, LLD (Hons LSUC), 2014 Recipient of the CBA Ramon Hnatyshyn Award for Law
    Victoria Sherman - Italy
    Maire Ni Shuilleabhain - Support worker with women affected by prostitution and THB, Ireland
    Linda Shuto - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christiane Sibillotte - Comité justice sociale des soeurs auxiliatrices, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Rachèle Simard - Artiste, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Indrani Sinha - Executive Director, Sanlaap, India
    Georgette Sirois - Infirmière retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Chris Sitka – Australia
    Shannon Slight – Tasmania, Australia
    Betty M. Smith - Camden, ME, United States
    Peggy R. Smith - Lincolnville, ME, United States
    Joan Smurthwaite - Catholic Women's League WA, Australia
    Mudahogora Solange - Maitrise en sociologie avec spécialisation en études des femmes de l'université d'Ottawa, Représentante de Femmes action en région métropolitaine de Halifax, NS, Canada
    Carole Anne Soong - University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Terre Spencer - United States
    Anne-Marie Spera - Travaillese Sociale, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Nadine Spuls - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Michèle St-Amand - Sexologue et psychothérapeute, Laval, QC, Canada
    Johanne St-Amour - Féministe, QC, Canada
    Ginette St-Jean - Val Joli, QC, Canada
    Professor Joanne St. Lewis BA, LLB - University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ONCanada
    Cornelia Sternberg - Germany
    Holly Stevens – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Hanne Storset - Analyzer, Social Sciences, Norway
    Johanna Strand - Teacher and feminist, Norway
    Emily Streibel - Raymond, AB, Canada
    Eva  Streibel - Raymond, AB, Canada
    Agnete Strøm - The Women’s Front of Norway, Bergen, Norway
    Leah Strudwick – Student, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Amanda Sullivan - Equality Now, New York, United States
    Doris Sullivan - Militante abolitionniste, Rawdon, QC, Canada
    Rose Sullivan - Militante et survivante de la prostitution, Rawdon, QC, Canada
    Elsie Suréna - Intervenante dans le domaine de la violence contre les femmes, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Jacqueline Sutton - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Fumi Suzuki - Executive Director, Space Allies, Japan
    Hélène Sylvain - Conseillère pédagogique, St-Jérome, QC, Canada
    Geneviève Szczepanik - Ph.d., Montréal, QC, Canada
    Carolina Tafuri - Italy
    Mairead Tagg - Clinical Psychologist and specialist in gender based violence, Scotland
    Julie Talbot - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Elsie Tan - MSN, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Emilia Tedesco - Turin, Italy
    Karin Temerpley – Melbourne, Australia
    Danièle Tessier - Sociologue, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Randi Theil - Head of Secretariat, Women’s Council in Denmark (Kvinderådet)
    Maj Britt Theorin - F. member of European Parliament and chairwomen of the Committee of Women’s Right and Equality
    Carole Thériault - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, St-Alphonse, QC, Canada
    Mélanie Thétrault - Intervenante, Granby, QC, Canada
    Joan Thomas - RN, PhD, Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    Nia Thomas - Artist, London, United Kingdom
    Irene Tsepnopoulos-Elhaimer - Executive Director, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Gale Tyler - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Nicolien Van Luijk - MA, PhD (c), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Toni Van Pelt - Public Policy Director, Institute for Science and Human Values, Inc. FL, United States
    Megan Watt - Leduc, AB, Canada
    Karin Werkman - Researcher, the Netherlands
    Chloe Westlake - BA, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Dr. Rebecca Whisnant - Director of Women's and Gender Studies, University of Dayton, United States
    Margareta Winberg - Former deputy prime minister and minister for gender equality, Sweden
    Crystal Wong – Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Jodie Woodward - Head of Operations, Nia Ending Violence, UK
    Linda Thompson - Women's Support Project, Scotland
    Virginie Tiberghien - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Yvonne Tierney – ON, Canada
    Léa Trahan - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Alice Tremblay - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Karine Tremblay - Agente de liaison RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Dr. Jill Trenholm - Lecturer/researcher, Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Rita Trottier - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Ada Tsang - BSW, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Louise Turmel - Enseignante retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Jane Turner - Teacher, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Anna Ulatowshki - Germany
    Sara Ungar – ON, Canada
    Nordic Model Advocates, United Kingdom
    Adina Ungureanu - Ville Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada
    Helen Uwangue - Benin City, Nigeria
    France Vallières - Retraitée, Rive Sud, QC, Canada
    Sylvie Van Brabant - Cinéaste, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Claudette Vandal - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Helen Vasa - Registered Clinical Counsellor, Canada
    Roberta Veenstra - Engaged Citizen, Nanaimo, BC, Canada
    Marie Hélène Veillette - Conseillère en rééducation, Granby, QC, Canada
    Sue Veneer - United Kingdom
    Michèle Vianès - Présidente de regards de femmes, Lyon, France
    Marilou Vidal - Bénévole GAP, Mercier, QC, Canada
    Monique Vigneault - Retraitée, Amos, QC, Canada
    Jeanne Villeneuve - Directrice des institutions patrimoniales Blueland, Conseillère de quartier mairie du 7° arrondissement de Paris, Présidente de l’Association quartier Breteuil de Paris, France
    Ariane Vinet-Bonin - Étudiante à la maîtrise en service social à l’Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Dr. Judith Walker - Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Megan Walker - Executive Director, London Abused Women's Centre, London, ON, Canada
    Zuilmah Wallis - Ireland
    Dr. Renate Walther - Germany
    Pei-Ju Wang - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Claire Warmels - Étudiante en philosophie à Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Simone Watso - Exited survivor, Australia
    Maureen Watt - Citoyenne, St-Lin-Laurentides, QC, Canada
    Morgan Westcott – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Vicki Wharton - Antipornculture, United Kingdom
    Cindy Wilkinson – ON, Canada
    Jeri Williams - Survivor 2 Survivor, Portland, OR, United States
    Jacqueline Wilson - Businesswoman and Philanthropist, Board Chair, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ursula Wojciechowski - Translator, Germany
    Elizabeth Wolber – Teacher at Fraser Heights Secondary School, Collective member with Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Angela Wong - Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Maria Wong - Front line anti-violence worker Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Corey Lee Wrenn – founder Vegan Feminist Network, United States
    Pauline Yargeau - Administratrice d’un centre d’aide et de lutte contre les agressions à caractère sexuel, Amos, QC, Canada
    Elisabeth Zadnick – QC, Canada
    Kerstin Zander - Re-Empowerment e.V., Deutschland
    Clorinde Zephir - Professeure de littérature française, Directrice d'organisation féministe, Haïti

Men in support of the letter

    Brian Africa – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Dr. Ifode Ajari - Medical doctor, United States
    Iroro Ajari - Nigeria
    Obuks Ajari - Lagos, Nigeria
    Kevin Ault - High School Teacher, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Louis Bélisle - Consultant en développement organisationnel, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Alain Benoit - Travailleur du réseau de la santé, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Bert Bjarland - Vice President, Profeministmiehet, Finland
    Didier Bois - Enseignant, Paris, France
    Andrew Bomberry - Policy Analyst/ Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Paolo Botti - Executive Director, Associazione Amici di Lazzaro, Italy
    Dr. Christoph Brake – Germany
    Dr. Robert Brannon, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College CUNY.
    National Chairperson, NOMAS Task Group on Pornography, Prostitution, and Sex-Trafficking
    Mordecai Briemberg - Member of StopWar.ca, retired College Instructor, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Stan Burditt - Founder, MAST-Men Against Sexual Trafficking, Canada
    Giorgio Carpita - Italy
    Denis Carrier - QC, Canada
    Philippe Fortier Charette - Travailleur, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
    Mathieu Charland-Faucher - Organisateur communautaire, Granby, QC, Canada
    Gagan Chhabra - Student, Norway
    Alex Coles - BFA Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Guillaume Danis - Militant, Saint-Lin, QC, Canada
    James Darbouze - Enseignant-chercheur, Militant syndical, Port-au-Prince, Haïti
    Jhonson Desir - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Timothy Dickau - DMin, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Martin Dufresne - Journalist, Le COUAC, Canada
    Paul Eid - Professeur au Département de sociologie de l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Pius Elue - Chicago, IL, United States
    Renel Exentus - Militant Assumer Ayiti, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marco Fasoli - Turin, Italy
    Professor Gene Feder - Professor of Primary Health Care, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Professor Bruce Feldthusen - former Dean, BA Queen’s, JD Michigan, LLB Western and LLM Michigan
    Antonio Chiadò Fiorio Tin - Mayor, Massello Municipality, Province of Turin, Italy
    Joshua Flavell - Sydney, Australia
    Nicolas Flechier - Travailleur social, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Matt Fodor – ON, Canada
    Daniele Gaglianone - Film Producer, Turin, Italy
    Adam Gagnon - Militant, Beauharnois, QC, Canada
    Martin Gallié - Professeur de droit à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Canada
    Gabriel Garcia - Comptable, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC, Canada
    Claude Gendron - Retraité, Responsable des achats à la maison mère des Soeurs de miséricorde, Brossard, QC, Canada
    Ioan Gi-Kwong - Étudiant, Bromont, QC, Canada
    Massimo Gianasso - Turin Municipality Police Force, Turin, Italy
    Maurizio Gili - Accountant, Senior Partner, Maurizio Gili & Co, Turin, Italy
    Azlan Graves - LPN/Outreach nurse, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Chris Green - Director White Ribbon Campaign, UK
    Michael Horowitz - CEO, 21 Century Initiatives, Principal Author of the US Trafficking Victims
    Protection Act
    Benedict Hynes - PhD candidate, Simon Fraser University, BC, Canada
    Biko Ismé-René - Étudiant, Artiste, Travailleur, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Dr. Robert Jensen - University of Texas at Austin, Texas, United States
    Thomas H. Kemsley - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Edoardo Kibongui - Italian Baptist Union of Churches, Turin, Italy
    Anton Klepke - Sweden
    Claude Labrecque - QC, Canada
    Benjamin Lach – Germany
    Marie-Thérèse Lacourse – QC, Canada
    Matthew K. Laing - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Michael Laxer - Toronto City Council Candidate-Ward 6, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Gabriel Legault - Mi-retraité service quincaillerie et ami dans la fam. Int. De la miséricorde, Lachine, QC, Canada
    Gabriele Lenzi - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    David Lohan - Co-Author "Open Secrets: An Irish Perspective on Trafficking & Witchcraft", Ireland
    Oscar Sanchez Viesca Lopez - Miembro activo del grupo civil VI.D.A y amnrdac, Torreon, Mexico
    Eli Mack-Hardiman – NY, United States
    Claudio Magnabosco - Director and co-founder, Associazione Ragazze di Benin City, Italy
    Guy Malette - Responsable des Achats et de la maintenance de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Pascal Marcil - Senior specialist, Bromont, QC, Canada
    Dr. Michael Markwick - Capilano University, North Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Colin Mingus – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Josua Mata - Secretary-General, SENTRO Labor Center, Philippines
    Hugh McElveen - Independent Researcher, Ireland
    David McHugh - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ronald Meyer - Halfmoon Bay, BC, Canada
    Patrick Morin - Militant, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
    Ryan Munn – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jonathan Nambu - Executive Director, Samaritana Transformation Ministries, Inc., Philippines
    Michael Nestor - Australia
    David H. Nguyen - Editor-in-Chief, Cancer InCytes Magazine, USA
    Irwin Oostindie - Media producer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Arinze Orakue - Director of PR, Nigerian National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP), Abuja, Nigeria
    Joe Osagie - Greater London City Council, London, UK
    Lucky Oseye - Turin, Italy
    Simeon Pang – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pascale Parent - Interventante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Dan Peters - Partnership Co-ordinator, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Alain Philoctète - Coordonateur de programmes, Poète, Maîtrise en pratique de recherche et action publique, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Richard Poulin - Professeur émérite département de sociologie et d'anthropologie de l’Université d'Ottawa, Professeur associé à l’Institut de recherches et d'études féministes (IREF) de l’Université du
    Québec à Montréal, Ville Mont-Royal, QC, Canada
    Professor Keith Pringle - Professor of Sociology with a specialism in social work, Uppsala University, Sweden; Adjungeret Professor, Aalborg University, Denmark; and Honorary Professor, University of Warwick, UK
    Fred Robert - Fondateur, Zéromacho
    Vincent Romani - Professeur régulier, département de science politique à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marc Andris Saint Louis - Travailleur social, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Dario Saluz - Architect, Turin, Italy
    Hugh Samson - B.Sc, P. Geo. Vancouver, BC, Canada
    François Savard - Directeur de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Philippe Scelles - Président d'honneur et vice-président de la Fondation Scelles
    Yves Scelles - Vice-président de la Fondation Scelles, France
    Reece K. Sellin - Fort Saskatchewan, AB, Canada
    Marc André Sullivan - Militant, Montréal, QC, Canada
    François Trudel - Directeur d'entreprise Chandelles tradition, St-Constant, QC, Canada
    Elcid Vedinel - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Ray Justin Ventura - National Chairperson, Youth and Students Advancing Gender Equality (YSAGE), Philippines
    Max Waltman - PhD Candidate, Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden
    Marv Wheale - Home Health Air, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jonathan R. Wilson - Ph.D., Carey Theological College, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Carlo Italo Zanotti - Architect, Senior Partner, Artom & Zanotti Associati, Turin, Italy
    David Zimmerman - GEMS Council of Daughters, National Survivor Network, Polaris Project Legislative Circle, United States of America

Footnotes

[1] Canada (Attorney General) v.Bedford, 2012 ONCA 186, para. 117, online at: http://www.ontariocourts.ca/decisions/2012/2012ONCA0186.pdf

[2] Canada (Attorney General) v. Bedford, 2013 SCC 72, para. 86, online at: http://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/13389/index.do.

[3] Seo-Young Cho, Axel Dreher, Eric Neumayer,“Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?” World Development, vol. 41, pp. 67–82, 2013.

[4] Ministry of Justice (New Zealand), “Street-Based Workers,” Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003, chap. 8, 2008, online at: http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/commercial-property-and-regulator.......

[5] Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (Germany), Report by the Federal Government on the Impact of the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act), July 2007, at 79. online at: www.mvcr.cz/soubor/05-regulating-legal-situation-of-prostitutes.aspx. See also, Ministry of Security and Justice (The Netherlands), Daalder, A.L., WODC (Research and Documentation Centre), “Conclusions,” Prostitution in the Netherlands since the lifting of the brothel ban, 2007, online at: https://english.wodc.nl/onderzoeksdatabase/1204e-engelse-vertaling-.......

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Amnesty branches oppose Amnesty International’s sex industry agenda
NORMAC Spokesperson Matthew Holloway
10.05.14 Tasmania Times

A resolution has been passed today by Amnesty branches in Tasmania and Queensland which advocates for an abolitionist approach to prostitution.

This decision conflicts with the position proposed by the international secretariat in support of a legalised sex industry with little government interference into the buying and selling of sex and with no recognition of those who are harmed in the industry.

Former anti-discrimination commissioner Dr Jocelynne Scutt stated her concern for the direction of Amnesty in proposing support for the sex industry. “Concerted action on a global level needs to be taken by all countries working cooperatively to end the slave trade, prostitution, and buying women and girls by whatever means - whether prostitution, slavery or marriages.”

Several Amnesty members who attended the Tasmanian branch AGM said that Amnesty had not consulted with Survivor Groups in the development of their sex laws proposals nor had they acknowledged the growing body of evidence that legalisation has been a failed experiment in all countries where it has been adopted, especially in Holland, Germany, Australia and New Zealand.

International Survivors Group Abolish Prostitution Now has stated:

If Amnesty International succeeds in its pimp- and pro-prostitution lobby-inspired stance of decriminalizing all aspects of prostitution, that will be almost the end of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as we know and understand it. They will not have brought it down alone, there have been other forces undermining the foundation of global human rights, but the impact of AI to decriminalize and remain the leading human rights NGO of the UN cannot be underestimated. The concept of Human Rights, and of Human Dignity as universal, inalienable and shared by all equally will be replaced by the idea of “dignity” being a marketable, individual stance that is at all times subject to market forces. Safeguarding human rights – and the rights of marginalized and disadvantaged groups like women and girls – will no longer happen from the standpoint of their inalienable rights, but merely from the point of view of improving their sales opportunities.

This is unacceptable. It means giving free reign to those in power, that is those with money. Just as decriminalizing all aspects of prostitution basically means giving free reign to pimps, traffickers, brothel owners and punters. The question will no longer be – how can women and girls (and boys and men) be kept out of prostitution, which we know to be devastating – but: How can we devise ways to make prostitution sound good, and to let those in prostitution keep a fraction of the money that is being passed around among powerful men? This is not Human Rights.

“NORMAC fully endorses this statement by Abolish Prostitution Now and considers that if Amnesty does not develop a contemporary and informed policy framework on the issues of exploitation of persons in the sex industry, the outcome will be dire both for their membership and for their standing as a peak human rights group.” said Matthew Holloway.

http://tasmaniantimes.com/index.php?%2Fpr-article%2Famnesty-branche...

Attacking the demand for child sex trafficking
by Siddharth Kara

Editor’s Note: Trafficking expert Siddharth Kara is a Harvard fellow and author of the award-winning book, “Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery.” For more than 15 years, he has traveled around the world to research modern-day slavery, interviewing thousands of former and current slaves. Kara also advises the United Nations and governments on anti-slavery research and policy.


I recently had the privilege of talking to CNN’s Piers Morgan about the “Real Men Don’t Buy Girls” campaign of Demi Moore and Ashton Kutcher’s DNA Foundation.

This effort is intended to attack male demand to purchase commercial sex from minors, many of whom are by U.S. law prima facie victims of sex trafficking. (Related: Real men join stars in fight against slavery) The importance of this effort cannot be overstated.

Most NGOs and policy-makers focus on the supply-side of sex trafficking, with efforts intended to protect people from being trafficked, such as awareness campaigns, education and economic training, and other efforts that attempt to mitigate the forces that render people vulnerable to being trafficked. All such efforts are crucial and should be expanded.

However, sex trafficking – like all forms of human trafficking – is a business, and for any business to survive it requires two forces: supply and demand.

The demand side of sex trafficking receives much less attention than the supply-side, even though I argue it is much more vulnerable to near-term disruption by the right kind of policies and interventions.

While the issue of sex trafficking often gets sidetracked by ideological debates on prostitution (i.e., whether to legalize or criminalize it), no right-minded person can think that legalizing the sale of children for commercial sex is in any way acceptable.

In addition to supply-side efforts to protect children from being trafficked, an aggressive and sustained campaign against male demand to purchase commercial sex from minors promises to have a meaningful impact on the overall business of child sex trafficking.

Such campaigns may not eliminate the totality of global male demand to purchase children for sex, including child pornography, which also involves countless trafficked children. However, any meaningful decrease in demand that results from these campaigns will go a long way towards disrupting the overall business of child sex trafficking.

There are also important economic forces of demand that must be attacked, namely the exploiter’s demand to generate immense profits through the sexual exploitation of children.

By my calculation, the global sex trafficking industry generated profits exceeding $39 billion in 2010, with an annual weighted average net profit of over $29,000 per slave (ranging from roughly $11,000 in South Asia to over $130,000 in North America and West Europe). Considering that the global weighted average acquisition cost of a trafficked sex slave is $1,900 (ranging from a few hundred dollars to roughly $8,000), then the return on investment is staggering.

These numbers alone demonstrate why there is immense demand among small-time criminals and international organized crime groups alike to be involved in the business of sex trafficking.

At the same time, the penalties for the crime remain paltry in most jurisdictions globally – relatively short prison terms and small economic penalties, or no economic penalty at all.

It is striking that sex trafficking involves the aggregate of numerous crimes – such as rape, torture, illegal confinement, administering a noxious substance (drugs), battery and assault – all of which are aggravated in the case of a minor, yet the penalties for each of these individual crimes are often greater than their aggregate in the form of sex trafficking.

Addressing these economic forces of demand is a matter for law enforcement, prosecutors and lawmakers, who must deploy far more aggressive efforts to investigate and punish child sex traffickers, particularly with severe economic penalties that negate the underlying purpose of the crime.

However, none of these crimes would exist without the robust forces of male consumer demand to purchase women and children for sex.

Attacking this force of demand is an indispensable component to an overall strategy of eliminating the crime of child sex trafficking.

The DNA Foundation is to be commended for focusing on a key component in the fight against child sex trafficking, and attacking that component with an aggressive, intelligent and hopefully very successful campaign.

https://girlservesworld.wordpress.com/tag/siddharth-kara/

REED postcard campaign to support the Nordic Model in Canada "Canada can do better"

(April 23rd 2014) a letter signed by over 800 international women's advocates, including women and men involved with REED, calls on politicians to look towards the Nordic Model - a model which decriminalizes prostitutes, criminalizes pimps and johns, and institues services and supports for those wishing to exit the industry - as a solution to the issue of prostitution and sex trafficking in Canada. The model has been successful in Sweden since 1999, has since been adopted by Norway and Iceland, and has been recommended by French Parliament and EU Parliament. This model focuses explicitly addresses the gender inequality inherent to the sex industry.

If you are in support of the Nordic Model consider writing to tell your elected officials that you want to see prostitution treated as a form of violence against women. Gather your community group, church circle, book club, class, men's group, etc. and write letters or fill out the postcards (see below) together. It's a great way to learn and take a step towards collective action!

To order postcards contact info@embracedignity.org.

http://embracedignity.org/

Swedish Laws, Policies and Interventions on Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings:
An Overview


Author: Gunilla S. Ekberg, June 25, 2014

A. Prostitution: Laws & policies
History
The initiative to criminalize the men who buy sexual services originally came from the Swedish women’s movement, and was carried forward by the women’s associations of the political parties. Feminists, including women with experience of prostitution, analyzed women’s position in society and how men, through the exercise of power through violence against women ensured that the subordinate position of women was maintained, including by men using some women and children, mostly girls, for prostitution purposes.
...

(Please read Ekberg's important 16 page paper online:)
http://feminismandhumanrights.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/briefing-...

Rosen Hicher is a French survivor of prostitution. Here is an Op-Ed she published to day in the French daily LIBÉRATION, as a group of French senators are trying to derail a law based on the Nordic Model.
(This was taken from a feminist's facebook post.)

"At a time when the Senate protects customers, I, a former prostitute, I'll tell you why I want France to make every effort to do away with these men who have ruined my life for over twenty years. I found the strength to do the calculation. Listen carefully. I had more than 30 000 clients in my career as a prostitute, at the rate of an average of four per day.

More than 30,000 sex acts that I did not want, that I refused with my whole body. 30,000 times the feeling of being denied, reduced to nothingness, to being a female robot. 30,000 times, I had the parade of these indifferent men, confident of their entitlement; in a corner of hostesses bar, in unsanitary salons, in the smell of champagne spilled on the seats and heady sex.

You who speak of customers as poor lonely or shy men, if you knew! The truth is the one who threatens you if you refuse sex without a condom; the violent one who leaves you with injuries for two weeks; the madman who shoots a rifle in the middle of a bar; the sicko who dresses as a woman and puts you through all kinds of humiliation; the one that spikes your drink or scrawls obscenities on your door to take revenge; the one who ends up stringing himself up after spending all he had paying for women's bodies.

And all others. All those who do not even bother to change or wash because they despise us so. All these sex addicts without any regard for their partner or for any woman. All these madmen, these masochists, these exhibitionists, these sadists, these zoophiles. All these predators: once one of them, who had seen me with my daughter aged 12-13, a bus driver (of children!), offered me 5,000 euros to have her; to rape her.

All these men that come tell us their wildest fantasies and require us to tell them that this is normal and there are no limits. You imagine that the regulars, as they are called, are good guys. No, they are men suffering serious deviations and dangerous for us and for all women. When will we finally understand that a lot of them have a greater need of psychologists than of prostitutes?

I was not born a prostitute, it is these men who made me a prostitute. They are the ones who forced me into 30,000+ sex acts, and so many rapes.

It is urgent for us to commit to ensure our children's right to protection, so that no girl, no young man has to live through what I suffered for so many years. And this is not possible if customers are allowed to maintain their entitlement. I refuse that customers remain the forgotten parties in this prostitution legislation, for those whom I speak of here are not exceptions: they are every client. And I put to you this question: "Why such a consensus to protect them?"

"People often talk about the abuses endured by women and children in the sex trade and pornography as the price of a free society, implying that the lives of these people are a tragic but necessary sacrifice if we are to avoid totalitarianism, censorship and so on. My first reaction is always one of stunned outrage — it is so very evident that the people making the sad preachments about necessary sacrifices are never the ones who are being sacrificed, and the freedom about which they have such tender and righteous feelings does not extend to those who are enslaved to ensure it."

D. A. Clarke, Unleashing Feminism

From: https://antipornfeminists.wordpress.com/2014/06/16/qotd-necessary-s...

"There is no single argument that could in any way legitimize the idea that men who buy sex from vulnerable and desperate women are an oppressed minority akin to gay people. Also, buying sex is not a sexual identity. Men buy sex because they want to have sex with someone who they don’t have to consider, know, or relate to as a human being. They want their needs met beyond all else and, often, they want someone to use and abuse in a way they can’t get away with in their homes and intimate relationships. That desire has little to do with “sex” if we are talking about “sex” as a thing that is desired and enjoyed by all parties involved — you know, not-rape sex."

-Meghan Murphy

Read more: http://feministcurrent.com/9226/johns-are-now-an-oppressed-sexual-minority/

"The problems that The Netherlands and Germany are facing in their struggle to regulate the aggressive prostitution industry are never mentioned by those who wish to facilitate for prostitution. On the contrary, they are spreading lies about the Nordic model internationally, lies that we need to refute over and over again. Since the Swedish Sex Purchase Act was implemented in 1999, the pro-prostitution lobby has been spreading propaganda globally, claiming the law hasn’t had its intended effect. Since Norway and Iceland followed Sweden’s lead in 2009, they have increased their efforts in this field. The Nordic model has become a very real threat to the international trafficking industry, an industry that each year brings in billions of Euros."

http://lawc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/2013-The-Crusade-of-th...

New study by Swedish political scientist Max Waltman on the Canadian 'Bedford' decisions
July 06, 2014

A new study by University of Stockholm Political Scientist Max WALTMAN
challenges the "folly" of the Canadian Supreme Court striking down the
Canadian legislation on pimping and brothel-keeping. 

WALTMAN writes:
"(...)The consequences of the decisions in Bedford amplify the
vulnerabilities, and social, political and legal disadvantage of a group
that already suffers multiple disadvantages in society. The impact of its
ruling stands out as being in discord with the imperatives to promote
equality under the Charter that have been recognized by the Supreme Court of
Canada since 1989. If anything, Section 15 directs Canadian courts to
reframe the prostitution laws so they promote equality: not invalidate
existing criminal laws against those who profit from the misery and
foreclosed options of others, but decriminalize prostituted people fully and
criminalize tricks more powerfully, while providing further support for
those who want to leave that life. (...) In the study's "Conclusion", pp.
543-544)

Abstract:
"Canada criminalizes anyone who “lives wholly or in part on the avails of
prostitution of another person,” and anyone who keeps, controls, or
knowingly permits a “bawdy-house” for prostitution. The Supreme Court of
Canada found that these laws prevented brothel management, escort agencies,
bodyguards, or drivers from enhancing the safety and well-being of
prostituted persons in indoor locations. This article assesses the evidence
relied on by courts to strike down the laws, finding that evidence was
misrepresented and misevaluated, thus did not support their decision.
Empirical evidence shows that prostitution is an unequal practice of sexual
and economic exploitation to which prostituted people generally lack real or
acceptable alternatives. Pimps and brothel-owners in general make their
situations worse, not better. The two invalidated provisions facilitate
prosecution of pimps and other third party profiteers more effectively than
existing trafficking laws. By invalidating these provisions, Canada will
expose prostituted people to predators while protecting their exploiters.
Their decisions overturn previous precedents that shielded prostituted
people from abusive pimps, and violate Canada’s commitment to promote
equality among historically disadvantaged people, such as those in
prostitution. Charter principles of substantive equality call for retaining
laws that put exploiters — pimps and brothel-owners — out of business, while
invalidating any fines or criminal laws imposed on prostituted persons,
measures that preclude their opportunities and exit. Civil damages actions
on behalf of prostituted people and effective criminal laws against purchase
of people for sex would also promote their substantive equality." 

Download a free pdf of the study here:
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2091216 

I Can’t Cry
Posted on August 14, 2014 by rmott62    

I want to cry so much.

My throat hurts so much coz it so blocked, my eyes are tired of being tired, my heart is in an agony where words disappear to.

I still can’t cry.

I wanted to cry when Lauren Bacall died, for she was my protector when all my world was being thrown to the wolves.

I remember as a 14-year-old wanting to be Lauren Bacall, wanting her presence by my side.

I stood by the bar in a sex club, and try hard to make it into “The Big Sleep”, and make reality disappear.

I imagined the dive I was in was a sophisticated nightclub – where I was wisecracking and keeping men at a distance.

I refuse to see the truth, that I had no voice, no safety, no access to dignity – I refuse to know I was nothing as I imagine I was strong as Lauren Bacall.

I want to cry so much for that lost teenager – but I can’t cry.

I want to cry at the careless use of language that destroyed my soul every day.

I want to cry every time I read, I hear and I come across someone I thought I could trust say “sex worker”.

I want to chop off their head, I want to smash my radio or TV up, I want to stab editors and academics that say those words.

All exited men and women I know, hate the term “sex worker”, and we say over and over and over why we want that language destroyed.

But instead, you listen and copy those who promote that term – do you not question why I and so many exited folks hate to be called sex workers.

It is a term invented and promoted by the sex trade and its allies to make invisible all the common male violence done to the prostituted.

Say prostitution is just work, maybe say it can hard and dangerous work, and it become about the individual prostitute – and never that it is a criminal structure that has the purpose of allowing men access to sadism.

To call it sex work is a terrible lie – said to bring the Left and liberal feminists in line with the sex trade.

I cannot believe how easy it for the Left and liberal feminists allow themselves to be manipulated and guilt-tripped by the sex trade.

I feel like slapping them for so naive/stupid, but i understand it is easier to think it just work and somehow can be made safe – then to know the brutal truth, that male violence is the life-blood of all aspects of prostitution.

Prostitution can never be made safe – for every time a punter makes the choice to buy another human, he is making the choice to own the prostitute body and soul.

That is not work, that is not sex – that is slavery.

Once you have been brought or sold – you know you have no rights to safety, no access to language that others will hear, no access to know consent.

Once you have been brought or sold – you learn to not know rape for it happens too regular for the human mind to comprehend.

Once you have been brought or sold – you teach your body to block out pain from endless tortures of mind, body and soul. You learn as quick as possible how to be alive, but empty of hope, emotions and sense of purpose.

You learn to be a husk.

I want to cry for that empty soul – cry for the endless hate, anger and pain that all the prostituted have forced into them.

I want to cry so, but only my choking and sickness comes.

I want to cry when I hear feminists say it about all women – as yet another of placing the prostituted as an afterthought, hopefully push far enough away to be made invisible.

Yes all women can be on the receiving end of male violence – but it about scale and what it means to belong to the prostituted class.

All women and girls could be raped in their lifetime – but it would considered terrible if a non-prostituted woman is raped in more than 5 separate occasions.

Most of the prostituted are raped in their hundreds, thousands, and in industrialised brothels numbers beyond human comprehension.

Rape is so normal to the prostituted, it become nothing, a non-event.

The prostituted are raped beyond knowing and naming it as rape.

We need another language for that scale of rape, another way of seeing and knowing that reality.

We need the language of extreme torture, the language of numbness and alienation, a language of human rights, a language that reaches into the centuries of silence that built the prostituted class.

I gleaned some language from reading classic horror such as MR James and Edgar Allen Poe.

I gleaned language from reading letters and memoirs from soldiers on the Western Front, in the American Civil War.

I gleaned language from diaries of slaves, from words of twentieth century genocides and civil wars.

Language need to look directly into the void that is prostitution – not turn away to other aspects of male violence, just to abandon yet again the prostituted class.

The men that rape, torture and murder the prostituted on a mass scale – are given permission by making their violence unspeakable – or just unhearable.

We must struggle to find a language that fits that scale – we must face without fear the terror, the agony and the depths of grief that give some meaning to what it is to be prostituted.

And not silenced those who speak out by saying it about all women.

Learn to hear the differences, learn to be quiet and wait for spaces to open for you to talk.

I wish I could cry – i wish so much.

http://rebeccamott.net/2014/08/14/i-cant-cry/

- Norway : "Now, can we finally embark on the remaining work, or what ?"
Publié le 2014/08/17 par ressourcesprostitution    

Now, can we finally embark on the remaining work, or what?
Skrevet av: MADELEINE SCHULTZ ©

The right to decide over your own body is a human rights principle. But the right to decide over your body does not exist if the collective “we” are unable to point out the structures in society that puts the individual’s needs ahead of the weakest who are entitled to protection. It is our responsibility to see the world as a whole and not picking out individuals who represent the exception to the prevailing structures. So, it was with great pleasure that the Norwegian women’s movement received the evaluation of the sex-purchase law on Monday. The evaluation considers the decline in the overall prostitution market to about 25 percent, had we not had the sex-purchase law, the increase in the market is estimated to 45 percent in comparison with today. Moreover, the evaluation also concludes that the law has influenced important pull factors, and probably reduced the extent of human trafficking to Norway. The police in Bergen believes that the sex-purchase law is the best weapon for combating human trafficking. The police in Oslo say they’ve never met a buyer who admits that he has understood that he bought sex from victims of human trafficking. None of the police stations are reporting that the market has “gone underground”:

“Prostitutes must be visible to the customers. The concept of going underground is therefore not right”

Now, a few days afterwards, it seems as if the politcal party “Venstre” (liberal party) is now sitting on the fence.  However, it is less certain what the two coalition parties will do (the Conservatives and the Progress party). The only thing I’ve managed to pick up is what the representative from the progress party stated at the presentation of the evaluation. The link to the video has been removed, but it was something like this: “Yes, it (the law) works if you by work mean that you want a downturn in the market.” Really? What else would you want?  If you ask me, it will be pretty short sighted of the Progress Party and the Conservatives if they now decides to go for a solution that will unleash last year’s 8th of march parade on them, again. In only five years we have had a ban in Norway, it was a flimsy basis that the team of the evaluation had to rely on. Therefore, even if the evaluation only had proven just a tendency towards a “functioning” law, that in itself should’ve been enough to allow it to work for a longer span of time. However, Now that the testimonies are so obvious that they are, against all odds, you have to be pretty stupid if you do not take notes. It seems that parts of the Conservative Party (the mayor), has already understood this point, and we welcome mayor Fabian Stang to the club of those who want to preserve the law and move on.
 
Not to brag or anything…

… But it was not everything in the evaluation that came as a shock to some of us who have been involved in this debate for some time. When Vista Analyse concluded on monday, that the sex-purchase law has contributed to lower demand, it was perhaps received by some of us mostly as a confirmation on the thoughts we already had. Anyway, it was a relief to read a review which clearly states the important functions of a law that has recently been criticized for not “working”. Perhaps we can now proceed to deal with what the evaluation also emphasizes, we must strengthen the relief measures: “The support system has a number of good social measures, but it is far from sufficient to give anyone who wants a real option to prostitution in terms of other work, with corresponding earnings”
 Let’s look a little closer at what the evaluation actually says:
 
The purpose of the law

The 1th of January 2009, Norway introduced a new sex-purchase law based on the model from Sweden. It was particularly human trafficking the former government wanted the new legislation to reduce. The evaluation states: “The objective of the penal provision (sex-purchase law) was to help change attitudes, reduce demand and thus the market for prostitution, and help to prevent men and women driven to prostitution or subject to trafficking”. It is basically these objectives that two economists, a sociologist and political scientist now have tried to evaluate, eventhough the law is barely five years.
For the Women’s front of Norway it’s been a relatively easy piece of math to understand: if you cut demand, you necessarily cut in offer too, and the consequences requires resources. Who is to blame when a 15 year old girl sells her body in exchange for a new cell phone? Is it the parents? Is it the girl herself? No. The blame lies solely on the man who buys her body. And the blame should be clearly presented to the society if we are to curb the recruitment to the business and change attitudes.

“It’s hard to measure how many people did not end up in prostitution because of the ban, but prevention is one of the most important reasons to keep this law”

And here’s a point: It’s hard to measure how many people did not end up in prostitution because of the ban, but prevention is one of the most important reasons to keep this law. We believe that the sex-purchase law has been a step in the right direction, and that belief is now largely confirmed by this evaluation.
 
The international market also affects Norway

One of the key points of the evaluation is a point that have often disappeared from the polarized media debate we have had lately. Namely that we had, just before the law was introduced, a financial crisis in Europe. A financial crisis affects also, like to any other international market, the offer and demand in the sex market. “The financial crisis and the economic situation in the EU and the rest of the world has significance for the overall prostitution market in the world, as well as how attractive the Norwegian market is perceived by prostitutes and traffickers” and “With persistently high unemployment and weak economic growth in Europe, the supply side in Norway, measured in number of prostitutes selling sexual services is expected to increase.”

So: because the harder times in the world generally are pushing more women into prostitution out of economic desperation, the supply in all countries should be expected to increase, regardless of legislations: “Our review of market developments shows that the strong growth in the supply, as a result of an increasing number of prostitute from including Nigeria and Eastern Europe, contributed to a collapse of the supply power that previously dominated the prostitution market in Norway. Increased competition had thereby given a “buyer’s market” long before the sex-purchase law was introduced “

“The law has a calming effect on recruitment to the Norwegian prostitution market”

Nevertheless, the evaluation concludes that the law has contributed to less prostitution in Norway. So against all odds: “Loss of earnings in the prostitution market may also have increased motivation to participate in efforts to find alternative sources of income. The law has a calming effect on recruitment to the Norwegian prostitution market” and “without the law there is every reason to believe that even more foreign prostitutes had come to Norway”

Demand

The evaluation also finds that the demand (the John’s) in Norway is clearly reduced, “We find it very clear that the law has a demand-dampening effect” and “There has been a reduction in relation to the market prior to the initiation of the law, but also in terms of how it could be today without the sex-purchase law”. This could mean: If we had found ourselves in a situation of financial crisis outside of Norway that would have increased the supply side of the market, without the normative effect of the law that would put a damper on the demand, we could thus risked an explosion of prostitution. It is interesting when the evaluation shows to what happened in Germany / France, a situation that might not have been so unlike Sweden / Norway if we had chosen to legalize like Germany:

“German prostitutes has not wanted to receive welfare benefits as other German workers. Instead, the German market has expanded in step with the French market being tightened”
 
Changing attitudes

The evaluation in Norway refers to the evaluation of Sweden from 2010 in the chapter about changing attitudes. The evaluation in Sweden concluded that people’s attitudes toward the purchase of sex has changed, and that change in attitude may have led to fewer new buyers and thus a gradual reduction in demand.

When the Norwegian evaluation refer to changing attitudes in Norway it is a bit more challenging task, because we are talking about a time frame so short as only five years. Yet they have found clear evidence that even in Norway there has been a change in attitude. “Prostitute we spoke with pointed out that there are now fewer “stylish lunch customers” who buy sex than before, there are fewer young men who buy sex, and it is relatively more foreign customers than before. More resourceful Norwegian men and young Norwegians, in other words, seem to have withdrawn from the market.”
 
Prostitutes situation

The fact that the prostitute will have to work longer and at a lower price than before, would of course have an impact on their own relationship to the law. Most informants from prostitution whom the evaluation have talked to, believe that the market has deteriorated and that there is greater competition for customers. Some believe themselves harassed by the law itself, but the evaluation also emphasizes: “Few of our interviewees have experience from before the law was introduced”. The evaluation goes quite far in emphasizing that prostitution has been highly stigmatized also before the law occured. Anyway, the evaluation also reports that several informants view the advocacy mandate of the law as a positive one:

“It is undesirable, for example, that their own children will grow up thinking that it’s okay to buy a woman”

When the Women’s Front was in Malmö in June Dorit Otzen from Swan Group in Denmark talked a little about the situation there. Denmark is a country with a legalized prostitution market, and Otzen expressing concern for the following:

“In my opinion there is a clear connection with men’s ability to buy sex, and the fact that 33 000 women in Denmark each year are victims of violence. When men, mostly risk-free are exposing one kind of woman to abuse and violence, and at the same time see how women are subject to men’s power in pornography, it can be very difficult not to get a perception that women are something you can do what you want with. In Denmark, the women are exposed to more violence than before. How much more violence are we going to expose women to?"

“When men, mostly risk-free are exposing one kind of woman to abuse and violence, and at the same time see how women are subject to men’s power in pornography, it can be very difficult not to get a perception that women are something you can do what you want with”

Whether men’s attitudes to women in general have been changed as a result of the law is not evaluated in the new evaluation. But it would be interesting to delve further into. When it comes to violence against the prostitute, the evaluation states that the sex-purchase law has no measurable effect on violence and threats against prostitute: “There is no basis for assuming that the sex-purchase law has had significant influence of whether violence is being reported or not. However, there are several other reasons why violence is not reported. Should there be a lower propensity to reported violence than before, this may just as well be due to other factors, including a greater share of women controlled by traffickers, women who are in Norway illegally or women who come from countries where they have a negative experience with the police “
 
The upgrade

Although the evaluation concludes that the sex-purchase law is working, it is still unresolved parts of the evaluation that we need to work on. The first point is about the police forces experience with and knowledge of prostitution. I can confirm myself that the police academy of Oslo has little or no training on the topic. The evaluation states that: “It is stated that several of the prostitute, especially on foreign markets (in Oslo), are afraid of the police. This is because they’ve experienced encounters with police that enforces unnecessary harassment on the streets in form of searching for condoms, and the use of the clause of expulsion.” It should also be stated however, that the prostitute themselves expresses contentment with the police who work with and has experience with human trafficking. In overall the women called for better training of the police. And this is something my own quick and little research from the academy thus can confirm. From the street market in Oslo the women also calls for the expertise of the former STOP-group (which are no longer operable). The police themselves are also requesting more resources to enforce the law better.

“Women in prostitution have stated that they do not think the law has been followed up with sufficient resources to prevent men and women from being recruited to prostitution”

“Women in prostitution have stated that they do not think the law has been followed up with sufficient resources to prevent men and women from being recruited to prostitution”. Also from the initiatives that work with the prostitutes it is expressed that the strengthening of resources is absolutely necessary, it is a shortage of alternatives to prostitution. “Those in the support system that offers a way out, has never encountered desire to remain in prostitution by the prostituted. There is a strong desire to feel like a humanbeing again."

We can not simply observe that the law works preventive and dampening of demand, and just let that be the end of it. Now that we all see that this clearly works, we need to use our energy to move forward and strengthen the support system and police resources. And frankly, if you STILL want to remove a law that to such a degree as this evalutation shows is advocating for essential human rights principles, then you can keep your head up your ass and blame the 8th of march parade on yourself!
 
Skrevet av:
MADELEINE SCHULTZ © all rights reserved

http://ressourcesprostitution.wordpress.com/2014/08/17/norway-now-c...

Here's the text of my presentation at FemiFest 2014, for anyone who wants it:

First of all I’d like to talk a little bit about what Radical Feminism means to me in the context of my work as an abolitionist activist, and also in an emotional sense, as a sex-trade survivor. Three years ago, when I began writing anonymous newspaper articles and blogging under the pseudonym FreeIrishWoman, I noticed pretty quickly that my words were shared amongst and disseminated by a particular group of feminists: Radical Feminists. Given that the recollections I described were the experiences of a homeless, socially-disowned, prostituted fifteen-year-old girl, I would have expected support from the feminist community, of all places. Just as well I wasn’t completely politically ignorant with regard to the divisions between those who describe themselves as feminists, otherwise it would have been a shock to discover that while my words and experiences were honoured and shared by Radical Feminists, they were widely ridiculed and had their authenticity relentlessly challenged by some of those who referred to themselves as Liberal Feminists.

Liberal feminism - which holds that anything a woman does can be empowering as long as she does it without a gun pointed to her head - had always sounded like a crock of crap to me anyway, so I cannot say I was terribly disappointed. I was wounded though; and above all, I was galled. It is both wounding and galling for me to know that there is a whole army of twenty-something, white, socially-privileged young women out there talking of prostitution as the very epitome of female empowerment. That they’ve made this assessment about an experience they’ve never had, while having spent years being educated in an effort to keep themselves out of the social class of women who most commonly have to experience it, and have decided it’s harmless, in spite of the tsunami of evidence that attests to its harm, is, to me, the most repulsive sort of hypocrisy.

Sometimes we who speak the truth about the global sex-trade find ourselves close to despair, crushed beneath the weight of the prevailing public view, steeped as it is in ignorance; both wilful and malignant, and in obliviousness, sometimes innocent in its nature, and when it is, all the more frustrating for it. We know the interests of patriarchy are served by the very existence of the global sex-trade and by the annihilation of the innumerable female lives snuffed out of existence within it. It is galling therefore, for all of us to listen to the Liberal Feminists toe the patriarchal line with the lie they buy for themselves and try to sell on to us that black is white, up is down, and imprisonment is liberating. Conflating consent with liberation is the business of those who do not know that oppression cannot operate without it. But the consent of oppression, consent under duress, is not true consent. The duress itself has morphed consent into a different shape and moved it away from its own nature. True sexual consent it not possible here. Sexual consent is beyond the laws of commerce; it is beyond sale and it is beyond purchase. Sexual abuse however, often has a price tag, and when it does, we call it prostitution.

I am tired of the ignorance of women who do not understand this, but is it surprising to anyone, really, that most of these women are, as I’ve said, young, white and privileged? I doubt that any of the women gathered here today are surprised by that, because, that the socially privileged are removed from the realities of the socially dispossessed is simply not surprising to any woman with a whit of political savvy.

But yes, I’ll own that we are tired and frustrated and pissed off, and with good reason. Each time we speak out, they do their best to shut us down. We’ve seen examples of this in recent weeks, as we do in all weeks. As I speak, there are fools running petitions against this conference from Edinburgh to Brighton and back again. The most genteel advice I could give these women would be to consult their dictionaries, and turn to the word feminist. Of course, unfortunately, I’d have to also advise them, in many cases, to disregard what they had found, since so many dictionaries frame feminism as a matter of sexual equality, which rather puts the cart before the horse. A woman who believes in the social, economic and political equality of the sexes is not a feminist, but a fantasist. We don’t live in that world; we don’t have equality, and, as Radical Feminists know, a prerequisite of equality is the dismantling of male supremacy. First, we must be liberated from it. Then, and only then, might we live our lives as equals.

The simple cruelty of the Liberal Feminist stance is something that also, apparently, escapes them. Their stance tells us sex-trade survivors that every rape we endured did not matter, that every sexual assault of every manner and variety were just occupational hazards, and that our gang-rapes would not have been gang-rapes had legislation just forced those men to use us one at a time. Well, I have news for them: flat rate brothels and gang-bang packages are all the rage in Germany now. For anyone who hasn’t heard these terms, a flat rate brothel is prostitutions answer to an all you can eat buffet. Men pay a one-off fee, a ‘flat rate’, and for this fee they can use the body, or bodies, of women for as long as they are humanly able, climaxing as many times as they want, or can. These are sometimes combined with gang-bang packages, whereby five or six or seven men arrive at the brothel together, pay their ‘flat rate’ and use the body of a woman until she can barely stand. I have had photographs forwarded to me from one such a scene from a German brothel. The girl being used by a half dozen men was nineteen years old, and seven months pregnant. This is the true face of the regulated sex-trade that Liberal Feminists fight for.

It has been claimed, in the midst of the campaigns against this conference, that I am endangering the lives of women in prostitution. It is telling how the depths of their incomprehension is revealed by the very charges they level against me. There was only one group of people who were ever responsible for endangering my life when I was in prostitution, and they most certainly were not abolitionists; they were sex-buying men; the same sex-buying men whose dicks will never be sucked by the Liberal Feminists who defend and uphold the rights of those men to have their dicks sucked by other women; economically disenfranchised, educationally disadvantaged, socially deprived and racially marginalised women.

So where do we go, with our frustrations? And what do we do, with the anger that is so inevitable here, such an intrinsic human reaction to the injustice of telling the truth and being called a liar? The first thing I would say is take heart: this situation will not last forever. It is precisely the hypocrisy of the Liberal Feminist stance which will be its undoing. The doctrine that says ‘empowerment can be found in these experiences (which we will fight tooth and nail to avoid for ourselves)’ has a shelf life. That type of nonsense has a sell-by date. However popular it might be, for however long, such doctrine is doomed to exposure – Emperor’s New Clothes style.

I have been profoundly comforted these last years (and especially this last eighteen months, since my book, Paid For, was published) not only by the truths that were accepted from me, but by the truths that were told by so many other women, most of whom did not have to have lived these realities to acknowledge them. I have been comforted to see, in country after country, abolitionist movements spring up where none had existed before, or become strengthened where they had been floundering, and everywhere I have seen the strengthening of abolitionism I have seen a strong overlap between the abolitionist movement and the Radical Feminist movement, or, at the very least, a strong adherence in abolitionism to Radical Feminist principles.

The reality is that Radical Feminists are on the right side of history here, and they are the only feminists who get the full picture, and the reasons why it exists. Socialist Feminists have my respect, but they don’t have the whole picture here. Prostitution does not exist as a consequence of women’s economic disenfranchisement. Poverty is a supporting factor. Not a reason. Supporting factors are not reasons. They are simply supporting factors. Prostitution exists for only one reason; that reason is male demand. No amount of poverty would be capable of creating prostitution if it were not for male demand.

I have come here today to ask for the support of every woman in this room in fighting this scourge that weighs almost exclusively on girls and women. We need to fight this, not by ripping at the leaves, nor hacking at the branches, nor even cutting this off at the trunk; we need to rip it up by the roots. As daunting as this task seems, we already have the tools to do it. We are not, thankfully, totally bamboozled like the liberals, nor are we hobbled in our understanding like the socialists. We know that prostitution is both a consequence and good evidence of the subordination of women, and it is from the standpoint of this understanding that we can dismantle it. It is very important that we never give an inch in this fight. We must never concede to the tactics of the pro-prostitution lobby, the first of which is to pretend that prostitution is not a moral issue. Let me say in front of you and in front of the world: You can be damn sure that prostitution is a moral issue, as human rights always are.

Abolitionists, the pro-prostitution lobby contend, are engaged in a ‘moral crusade’ to rid the world of prostitution. Crusade, here, is a pejorative term, and it is linked with morality in order that some of its contemptuous derision will rub off. Morality itself, we are told, is negative, ill-founded and, well, wrong. The straight-up foolishness of asserting that discerning between right and wrong is itself wrong apparently escapes some people.

I am tired of hearing people frame abolitionist arguments by beginning ‘I am not a moralist, but...’ We are all moralists, unless we are psychopaths, and since when was morality a dirty word? Here’s the answer to that: morality has been a dirty word since it suited certain people that we look the other way and pretend that morality is null and void here; and you will find, time and again, that people who espouse that position are defending something which is very plainly wrong, hence their absolute insistence that morality shouldn't get a look in.

There is also the nonsense claim that those who oppose prostitution do so necessarily from a religious standpoint, as though there were any shortage of ethical atheists in the world. The moral principles that govern or influence conduct often have no basis other than our own innate sense of what is or is not harmful human behaviour. Prostitution is damaging to the human psyche on every conceivable level; it is exactly its harmful, degrading nature that gives rise to the instant sense of objection we feel when we imagine prostitution as a feature in the lives of the women we love.

So let us stand firm on these points: That prostitution exists because of the male demand for it, and that we know damn well and will not be shaken in our assertion that it is flat-out wrong. There is a reason we are fought so consistently on these points; the reason is our opponents know we can win on them.

Let me repeat that I have come here today to ask for the support of every woman in this room in fighting prostitution. Please hear this as a call to action. Across Europe, our politicians are beginning to discuss prostitution more frequently, and just this February the European Parliament voted by an overwhelming majority to adopt the Honeyball report, which calls for a Europe wide adoption of the Nordic Model. When your politicians speak out, please support them by letters both public and private. When they do not, please encourage them to do so. When you see abolitionist campaigns spring up – and you will see more of them; the abolitionist movement is growing – please lend your time and your energy and your voice.

I am working with a group called SPACE International. SPACE stands for ‘Survivors of Prostitution-Abuse Calling for Enlightenment’. Our membership spans seven countries now and all of us have made the deeply painful sacrifice of speaking out publicly about our abuse in the sex-trade. We have friends and allies in several international organisations and we are gaining ground, but we cannot do this without the support of women in the general public. I encourage you to join RadFemUK and other groups like them, and to support their actions by sharing and disseminating their campaigns and materials. We need a groundswell of support from women, but maybe before that happens, we need to remind women that the bodies of their daughters would be just as welcome in the brothels and the red-light zones as ours ever were, should the circumstances of their lives ever happen to place them there.

Rachel Moran

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