Perspectives and information in support of Canada adopting the Nordic Model to address prostitution

Please look for the following articles posted in the dialogue area below:

M.PAULUS : Out of Control. On liberties and criminal developments in the redlight districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. Publié le 2014/05/06 par resources prostitution   
By Manfred Paulus, retired detective chief superintendent, Ulm/Danube, June 2013

Open letter calls for Nordic approach to prostitution in Canada
by Staff, Straight.com, Apr 23, 2014

Prostitution laws should follow Nordic model, former sex trade worker says
Activist tells Calgary panel discussion Ottawa's new legislation should criminalize the users CBC News, Feb 28, 2014

Province urges feds to use Nordic model on sex trade Targets pimps, johns rather than workers by Mary Agnes Welch, Winnipeg Free Press, 02/15/2014

French go Nordic on prostitution: new report explains why Australia should be next
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Australia 2 Dec 2013

Feminist Current 10 myths about prostitution, trafficking and the Nordic model
by Meagan Tyler, Dec 8, 2013

Buying sex should be banned in Australia
by Meagan Tyler, The Conversation, 3 December 2013

The Swedish chapter of Amnesty rejects Amnesty International’s proposal to decriminalise the purchase of sex acts
At its annual meeting in Malmö this weekend, the Swedish section will adopt a clear position against legalizing the prostitution system.
by Erik Magnusson, May 8, 2014

Former President Jimmy Carter Condemns Amnesty International UK Document “Decriminalization of Sex Work” & AI Position that Pimps and Johns Should Be “Free from Government Interference”
by Robin Morgan, April 30, 2014

London’s Police Chief Promotes ‘Nordic Model’ Following Human Trafficking Pilot Project
London, Ontario, Canada / (CFPL AM) AM 980
by Natalie Lovie, April 17, 2014

Academics Voice Support for 'Nordic Model' of Prostitution Open Letter
IB TimesBy Hannah Osborne | IB Times – Feb 26, 2014

Uncovered: Shocking investigation reveals sex trade in girls bought in Romania and sold as prostitutes in Britain
Feb 22, 2014 By Matthew Drake

What is the 'Nordic Model'?
http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/Nordic_Model_EN.pdf

Amnesty branches oppose Amnesty International’s sex industry agenda
NORMAC Spokesperson Matthew Holloway May 10, 2014 Tasmania Times

Attacking the demand for child sex trafficking
by Siddharth Kara

REED postcard campaign to support the Nordic Model in Canada "Canada can do better"
April 23rd 2014

and many more ....

Open letter calls for Nordic approach to prostitution in Canada
by Staff, Straight.com, Apr 23, 2014

Editor's note: The following open letter on the topic of prostitution in Canada has garnered over 800 signatures. It was written in response to another open letter that called for the decriminalization of sex work.

Open letter: 300 researchers call for decriminalization of sex work in Canada
Ottawa eyes Nordic model for prostitution legislation

Right Hon. Stephen Harper, Prime Minister, Leader of the
Conservative Party of Canada,
Mr. Thomas Mulcair, MP, Leader of the Official Opposition, the New
Democratic Party of Canada,
Mr. Justin Trudeau, MP, Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada,
Mr. Jean-François Fortin, MP, Interim Leader of the Bloc Québécois,
Ms. Elizabeth May, MP, Leader of the Green Party of Canada

April 23, 2014

Dear Sirs and Madam,

We—the undersigned—are women who work in different capacities to end violence against women and to protect and advance women’s rights to equality. Prostitution is a practice in which women’s subordination to men is inherent and lived out repeatedly. Consequently, we are writing to you today to urge you to support the “Nordic approach” to legislation on prostitution for Canada, because it includes legislation, intensive social supports, and public education strategies, all designed to reduce and eliminate prostitution.

We are aware of the March 27 open letter from the Gender and Sexual Health Initiative at the University of British Columbia (GSHI), which calls for decriminalization of all aspects of prostitution, including buyers and profiteers, on the grounds that this is the only “evidence‑based” policy option.

The use of the term “evidence-based” has become a smear used by those supporting the sex industry to suggest that those who oppose it in the name of women’s equality are arguing from a position of nothing more than anecdote or opinion.  The list of signatories implies that only those with formal credentials can “research” or interpret evidence.  We reject both of these premises.  Evidence about the harms of prostitution is gathered by academic researchers, survivors of prostitution and those working on the front-line. That evidence proves that prostitution is violence against women.

This is not only a dispute about evidence; it is a dispute about goals and principles, and legislators will have to decide carefully which principles they wish to uphold, and which goals they wish to pursue, for women in Canada. The evidence in the same studies and government reports cited in the GHSI letter supports intensive efforts, worldwide, to reduce and eliminate prostitution. All reports and studies on prostitution confirm that, as the Ontario Court of Appeal said in Bedford, “prostitution is inherently dangerous in virtually any circumstance.”[1] Merely attempting to reduce the ancillary dangers of prostitution is an inadequate, and in our view, discriminatory strategy.

The signatories to the GHSI letter believe that prostitution, or ‘sex work’, is sex between consenting adults; that a bright line can be drawn between ‘sex work’ and trafficking and child prostitution; and that a harm reduction strategy is all that is necessary to moderate the worst effects of the commercial sex industry.  We believe that prostitution constitutes violence against women because it is a practice of subordination and exploitation that is gendered, raced, and classed; that, as the Supreme Court of Canada found in Bedford, most women cannot be said to choose prostitution,[2] and consequently, in the experience of women, any line between prostitution, trafficking and child prostitution is more artificial than real. Therefore, we believe that a strategy that affirms the human dignity of women and girls is essential and the only approach consistent with Canada’s principles of equality.

A Women’s Equality Framework

First of all, any new approach to prostitution must be set in a women’s equality framework and reflect the fact that equality for women is a fundamental principle of Canadian law, enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and set out in human rights legislation that governs employment and services in all jurisdictions in the country.  Prostitution is a social institution that both manifests and embeds the inequality between women and men, perpetuating women’s subordination to men, and their status as sexual commodities for men’s use. In Canada, as elsewhere, men are overwhelmingly buyers and women are the ones being sold. It is not sufficient in the face of these facts to take an approach that might merely reduce the harms that surround prostitution, when prostitution itself is a reinforcement of women’s subordination.

Further, the evidence is clear, including in affidavits filed by both the claimants and the defendants in the Bedford case, that women enter into prostitution because of economic need and profound social disadvantage. As it makes no sense to penalize women for their sexual, social, and economic inequality, we endorse the legislative approach of the Nordic model, that is, to decriminalize those—usually women— who are being bought and sold, but to apply criminal sanctions to buyers, pimps, and those who profit from the sale of women’s bodies. The criminal law by itself is not a solution to the inequality problem that prostitution represents, but it is essential, in our view, that the criminal law convey a clear message about women’s equality in Canada: in this case, the message that men’s purchase of sex is an egregious and impermissible violation of equality rights.

Who is in Prostitution?

Most women in prostitution in Canada are there because of poverty, homelessness, addictions, lack of social supports, racism, and the many harsh impacts of colonialism on Aboriginal communities and families. Aboriginal women and girls are disproportionately represented in street prostitution and among women in prostitution who have been murdered. In British Columbia, as the Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP) has documented, Asian women are disproportionately represented in indoor prostitution, in venues such as massage parlours, where they are advertised to clients as ‘exotic.’ Many women enter prostitution as children; many have histories of child sexual abuse. Most say they would leave prostitution if they could.

These are well‑established facts. Prostitution is evidence of, and entrenches, sex, race, and class hierarchies. In the face of this, it is wholly inaccurate to call prostitution sex between consenting adults or to explain women’s presence in prostitution as choice, when the choice of women to be in prostitution, or to leave it, is so heavily constrained.  Prostitution for poor, racialized women in Canada cannot be called liberty.

The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) has made a public call for help to stop the buying and pimping of Aboriginal women, and to stop the poverty and abuse that funnels them into prostitution. NWAC has said that its goal is to “end the prostitution of women and girls through legal and public policy measures that recognize the state’s obligations to 1) provide for basic needs and 2) protect women and girls from male violence.”

The Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution (AWCEP) makes the same call. We support NWAC and AWCEP and join our voices to theirs.It is apparent from the facts about women in prostitution that concerted and comprehensive social program intervention is required to prevent women and girls from entering prostitution and to assist them to leave it.  Well‑designed interventions by Canada’s governments, with long‑term commitments to address the social and economic disadvantage of women and girls, and particularly of Aboriginal and other racialized women and girls, will be needed, not just piecemeal short‑term exit services, drop‑in centers, or safe houses. Creating conditions that minimize the risk of women entering prostitution, and genuinely helping them to leave it, requires providing women and girls with adequate alternative sources of income, including social assistance sufficient to meet basic needs, adequate housing, access to all levels of education, decent work, child care, and counseling, addiction, and mental health services.

On this point too we find the Nordic model helpful, because it is clear that criminal law, by itself, is not a sufficient solution to the profound inequality that prostitution represents. Genuine programmatic and budgetary commitments by governments are also necessary to address the deeply rooted social and economic disadvantages of women and the history of sexism, racism, and colonialism that underlie prostitution.  

Why Canada Should Not Legalize Buying, Pimping and Profiting

Legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution has been tried in the Netherlands, Germany, the state of Nevada, some states in Australia, and New Zealand. Such an approach means that governments and societies accept that there is an underclass of women (defined by some combination of poverty, race and addiction) who can continue to be exploited in prostitution, even though prostitution is inherently an institution of sex inequality and violence. We do not agree that prostitution is acceptable for any women, or that the goal of equality between women and men can be abandoned for some women.

The Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) flatly rejects the prospect of indoor prostitution in legalized brothels as an advance for Aboriginal women and girls. They point out that Aboriginal women and girls who are in street prostitution are unlikely to move indoors because poverty and racism keep them in the most dangerous forms of prostitution. Even if this were not the case, NWAC finds that, over time, Aboriginal women and girls have been shifted from institution to institution by settler governments—residential schools, group homes, prisons. The brothel appears to be the most recent institution that is considered better and safer for Aboriginal women. But this is not equality for Aboriginal women and girls. As AWCEP knows from the experience of its members, indoor prostitution is no answer; it merely puts hard walls around the inequality of poor and racialized women, and leaves it unchanged.

Further, legalization and decriminalization, as an approach, renders the men who are buyers, pimps, and prostitution entrepreneurs invisible; their activities become protected, legal, and normalized. 

We believe that this is a wrong approach: men must be held accountable when they subordinate and exploit women. Equality for women cannot be achieved in Canada if we are unwilling to engage with the cruel reality that men exploit women in prostitution. Even within the limited goal that legalization sets for itself – i.e., to reduce the harms that surround prostitution – the evidence does not show that it has succeeded.  The most recent comprehensive study of prostitution and trafficking in one hundred and fifty countries finds that countries that have legalized prostitution show an increased inflow of trafficked persons, and growth in the size of the prostitution industry.[3] Government reports from Germany, the Netherlands, and New Zealand say that street prostitution persists,[4] and that there is little improvement in the conditions of women in prostitution.[5] The violence inherent in prostitution is accepted by legalization, and the violence regularly associated with prostitution does not disappear.

In addition, what is legalized and normalized is not just individual prostitution transactions, but the prostitution industry. It not only becomes legal for individual men to purchase access to women’s bodies, but also legal to own and run a business that sells access to women’s bodies, or for employers in isolated work locations to provide men access to women for sex as an aspect of employment. For Canada to take this step would be both dangerous and discriminatory.

Where Should Canada Stand?

Canada has a history of commitment to women’s equality, to racial equality, and to vigorous social programs as a means of creating a more egalitarian society in which the basic needs of all Canadians are met. In addition the rights of Aboriginal peoples, and of Aboriginal women to live free from violence, are set out in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, recently endorsed by Canada. Consistent with Canada’s long‑standing commitments to equality, we urge you now to support a Nordic‑model approach to new legislative, programmatic, and public education strategies to reduce and eliminate prostitution in Canada.

We do not accept prostitution as a solution to women’s poverty; we want something much better for Canada’s poor and racialized women and girls. We believe you do too, and we urge you to act on your commitments to women and to an egalitarian Canada.  

List of Signatories

    Hamai Abdiwahabu - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Saadatou Abdoulkarim - Militante féministe, QC, Canada
    Esohe Aghatise - Executive Director, Associazione Iroko Onlus,

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Torino, Italy
    Ti-Grace Atkinson - Radical feminist, Cambridge, MA, United States
    Michele Audette – President, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Cenen M. Bagon - Vancouver Committee for Domestic Workers and Caregivers Rights, Vancouver, BC, Cana
    Jane Bailey - B.A.S., M.I.R., LL.B., LL.M. Associate Professor, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Grace Balbutin - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Sheila Ballantyne - PhD candidate, Mining Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kat Banyard - UK Feminista, United Kingdom
    Trisha Baptie - Formerly Exploited Voices Now Educating, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kathleen Barry - Ph.D. Sociologist, Professor Emerita, Author of: Female Sexual Slavery and Prostitution of Sexuality: Global Exploitation of Women, United States
    Suzanne Baustad - Immigration and Refugee Law Paralegal, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Professor Louise Bélanger Hardy LL.B., LL.M. – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Ijose Aghatise - Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, Turin, Italy
    Roseline Iroghama Aghatise - Iroko Charity Organisation, Nigeria
    Isoken Aikpitanyi - Sex Trafficking Survivor and co founder of Associazione Ragazze di Benin City, Italy
    Dr. Ochuko Ajari - Boston, MA, United States
    Soerette Alexandre - Mémorante en linguistique, Militante féministe, Haïti
    Geneviève Allard - Scientfique en environnement, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Jess Alley - TDEV Concordia University, Montreal QC, Canada
    Gwendoline Allison - Foy Allison Law Group, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Gisèle Ampleman - Membre du comité québécois de conscientisation, QC, Canada
    Rachel Ariey-Jouglard - Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Margaretha Aronson - Member of Fredrika Bremer Förbundet, Sweden
    Association Femmes pour le Dire, Femmes pour Agir, France
    Gertrud Åström - President, the Swedish Women's Lobby
    Kelsey Atkinson - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Nancy Aubé - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Professor Constance Backhouse - B.A., LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. (HonsLSUC), LL.D. (Hons U Man), Distinguished University Professor and University Research Chair at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Roxanne Badger - Bénévole GAP, Chateaugay, QC, Canada
    Iliana Balabanova-Stoicheva - Coordinator of Bulgarian Women's Lobby, Bulgaria
    Ilaria Baldini - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Gabriela Delgado Ballesteros - Investigadora, Programa Universitario Derechos Humanos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    Ixtlan Pax Ballesteros - Azusa, CA, United States
    Jose Krisanto Ballesteros - Manila, Philippines
    Pauline Ballesteros - Azusa, CA, United States
    Paula Barber - Toronto, ON, Canada
    Pauline Baril - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Sharon Barnes - Student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cassandra Barnaby - Reception, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Claudette Bastien - Présidente du Comité d’action contre la traite humaine interne et internationale, Infirmière semi-retraitée, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Brigitte Martel Baussant - Secrétaire générale de la Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
    Rosalyn Baxandall - Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus, SUNY, Old Westbury (now CUNY Labor School), NY, United States
    Rose Beatty - Member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Huguette Beauchamp, S.M. - Travailleuse sociale retraitée mais secrétaire au conseil général des srs. De miséricorde, QC, Canada
    Julie Béchard - Centre Passerelle, Timmins, ON, Canada
    Carole Bédard - QC, Canada
    Hélène Bédard - QC, Canada
    Louise Bégin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Claire Bélanger - Saint-Nicolas, QC, Canada
    Josée Bélisle - Intervenante communautaire, Amos, QC, Canada
    Janine Benedet - LLB, LLM, SJD, Associate professor of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Sophie Bennett - UK Feminista, United Kingdon
    Christine Bickson - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Taina Bien Aime - Executive Director, Coalition Against the Trafficking in Women
    Geneva Biggers - Women’s peer support group member, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Rebecca Bishop - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cécile Bisson – QC, Canada
    Mary-Lee Bouma - Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity (REED), Vancouver, BC,
    Axelle Beniey - coordinatrice de projet, Guadeloupe
    Annette Benoit - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Josée Benoit - survivante et militante, Malartic, QC, Canada
    Sarah Benson - Chief Executive Officer, Ruhama: Frontline service to women affected by prostitution and sex trafficking, Ireland
    Summer-Rain Bentham - Squamish Nation, Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Kristen Berg - Equality Now, New York, NY, United States
    Samantha Berg - Journalist and organizer, Johnstompers.com, Portland, OR, United States
    Marina Bergadano - Law Offices, Marina Bergadano & Co., Turin, Italy
    Catie Bergeron – intervenante, CALACS, Charlevoix, QC, Canada
    Jocelyne Bernatchez - Directrice des ventes, Amos, QC, Canada
    Nicole Bernier - Animatrice provinciale, QC, Canada
    Helene Berry - RN, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Julie Bindel - Journalist, author and feminist campaigner, United Kingdom
    Lucie Bilodeau - Aide-jardinière, Ste-Christine, QC, Canada
    Francine Blais - Retraitée en Service social et à mi-temps, coordonnatrice des Ami-e-s de la Famille Internationale de la Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nadine Blais - Enseignante au cégep de l'Outaouais, Travailleuse sociale de formation (niveau maitrise), Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Stassy Blais - Étudiante en technique de travail social, Amos, QC, Canada
    Annie Blouin - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Granby, QC, Canada
    Linda Boisclair - Responsable du comité de la condition féminine du Conseil central du Montréal métropolitain-CSN, Longueuil, QC, Canada
    Pierrette Boissé - Responsable du dossier sur la traite humaine à la Congrégation de Notre-Dame, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Gabrielle Boissonneault - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Annick Boissonneault - travailleuse sociale, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Sophie Bolduc - Stagiaire au CALCS de Chateauguay, Montréal, QC, Canada=
    Antonia Bonito - Turin Municipality Police Force, Turin, Italy
    Bernard Bosc - Réseau féministe “Ruptures”, QC, Canada
    Claudia Bouchard - travaille au quotidien avec des femmes qui ont été dans la prostitution, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Diane Bouchard - Retraitée, Charlevoix, QC, Canada
    France Boucher - Avocate et chargée de cours à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Boucher, Mahara - ASETS Adminstrative Assistant, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Nadjet Bouda - Responsable administrative à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Étudiante à la maitrise en science politique à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Claudie Bougon-Guibert - Conseil national des femmes françaises
    Carole Boulebsol - Sociologue Ma., Montréal, QC, Canada
    Ginette Bourdon - Infirmière retraitée, Brossard, QC, Canada
    Jeannine Bourget - Animatrice, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nadine Bouteilly-Dupont - President, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
    Lise Bouvet - Gender Studies Researcher, Switzerland
    Susan B. Boyd - F.R.S.C. Professor, Chair in Feminist Legal Studies Faculty of Law at Allard Hall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christine Boyle - Professor Emeritus States, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Valérie Brancquart - Québec, QC, Canada
    Elizabeth Briemberg - Retired Supreme Court of BC Family Conciliator, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Pascale Brosseau - Intervenante, Lévis, QC, Canada
    Twiss Butler - Member Abolish Prostitution Now Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW International), National Organization for Women, United States
    Serena Caldarone - Resistenza Femminista, Italy
    Annie Campbell - Director, Women’s Aid Federation, Northern Ireland
    Chiara Carpita - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Francesca Carpita - Italy
    Melina Caudo - Executive Director, Associazione Progettarsì, Turin, Italy
    Martha Centola - Vice President, Associazione Iroko Onlus, Turin, Italy
    Karen Cody - President of the Board of Directors for The Organization for Prostitution Survivors, Seattle, WA, United States
    Mylène Collin - Intervenante, Québec, QC, Canada
    Jennifer Conkie - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Lynda Coplin - retired teacher, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Kelly Coulter - Drug Policy Advocate, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Larissa Crack - Northern Women's Connection, Canada
    Mary DeFusco - Esq. Director of Training and Recruitment, Defender Association of Philadelphia, United States
    Anastasia DeRosa - Front line crisis worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Francine Descarries - Ph.D, Professeure et Directrice scientifique du Réseau québécois en études féministes (RéQEF) UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Tamar Dina - Music Liberatory, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Dr. Gail Dines - Professor of Sociology, Wheelock College, Boston, MA, United States
    Caryn Duncan - MA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Catherine Dunne - Act to Prevent Trafficking, Ireland
    Anna Edman - Sweden
    Teresa Edwards - B.A., JD. Director, International Affairs and Human Rights, In-House Legal Counsel, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Gunilla S. Ekberg  - Former special advisor on prostitution and human trafficking to the Swedish government, human rights lawyer, Canada and Sweden
    Fiona Elvines - Operations Coordinator, Rape & Sexual Support Centre Croydon, UK
    Jimena Eyzaguirre -  M.Sc., M.R.M. Senior Climate Change Specialist, ESSA Technologies Ltd. Ottawa Chapter Co-chair, Canada-Mathare Education Trust
    Melissa Farley - Ph.D., Prostitution Research & Education, San Francisco, CA, United States
    Colleen Fuller - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Professor Karen Boyle - Chair in Feminist Media Studies, University of Stirling, UK
    Easton Branam - Seattle, WA, United States
    Chantal Brassard - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Granby, QC, Canada
    Marie-Claude Brault - QC, Canada
    Annick Brazeau - Travailleuse sociale, Baccalauréat en travail social, Diplôme d’études collégiales en techniques policières, Certificat universitaire en développement international, Étudiante à la maîtrise en travail social
    Hélène Brazeau - Professeure au cégep de l'Outaouais, Maîtrise en psychoéducation de l'UQO, Cantley, QC, Canada
    Cathy Brennan - Gender Identity Watch, United States
    Janie Breton - Féministe, QC, Canada
    Judith Bridge - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Dr. Gwen Brodsky - LLB, LLm, PhD, Distinguished Visiting Scholar, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada
    Cleta Brown - LLB, LLM, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kimberly Brown - Equality Now, Nairobi, Kenya
    Nancy Brown - SC, OBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Alma Bulawan - President, BUKLOD Survivors' Group, Olongapo, Philippines
    Autumn Burris - Survivors for Solutions, United States
    Dr. Shauna Butterwick - Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Elizabeth Cahill - St John’s, NL, Canada
    Laure Caille - General Secretary, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
    Tulsi Callichum - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Callie Fleeger – Student, Talent, OR, United States
    Associate Professor Angela Cameron BA, LLB, LLM, PhD – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Laura Capuzzo - Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
    Marie-Josée Carbonneau - Agente de sécurité, Amos, QC, Canada
    Elda Carly - Équipes d'Action Contre le Proxénétisme, Paris, France
    Chantale Caron - Agricultrice, St-Roch-de-Richelieu, QC, Canada
    Carole Cayer – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Mercier, QC, Canada
    Ida Centola - Avigliana, Italy
    Pat Cervelli - Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Tuolumne, CA, United States
    Gaétane Chabot - Saint-Laurent-de-l’île-d'Orléans, QC, Canada
    Maude Chalvin - Chargée de projet intersectionnalité et agente de communication RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Yuly Chan - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Jaclyn Chang - MA, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Elaine Charkowski – United States
    Emmanuelle Charlebois - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Alexandra Charles - Ordförande, Stockholm, Sweden
    Vanessa Chase - Board Member, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christiana Cheng - PhD, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Gaétane Chénier - Intervenante communautaire, Amos, QC, Canada
    Missy Chirprin - Radio Host/Producer, United States.
    Youngsook Cho - Korean Women's Association United, South Korea
    Jomini Chu - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kim Chu - University of Calgary Nursing, Vancouver, BC, Canada,
    Mélanie Clément - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Christina Clément - femme, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Conseil national des femmes françaises
    Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
    Jeannine Cornellier - SNJM, Association des religieuses pour les Droits des femmes, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Luce Côté - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Madeleine Côté - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Véronique Couillard – Intervenante, CALACS Charlevoix, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Dr. Maddy Coy - Reader in Sexual Exploitation and Gender Equality, London Metropolitan University, UK
    Annie Crepin - France
    Maisie Faith J. Dagapioso - Woman Health Philippines, Zamboanga City
    Madeleine Dagenais - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Octavia Dahl - United States
    Florence Daigneault - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Lucie Daigneault - Comptable à l'administration locale de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Laval, QC, Canada
    Mathilde Darton - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada
    Mélissa Dauphin - Artiste engagée, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Jo-Anne David - Centre Colibri, Barrie, ON, Canada
    Stephanie Davies-Arai – United Kingdom.
    Shelagh Day - CM, Director, Poverty and Human Rights Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Docteure Michèle Dayras - présidente de SOS sexisme, France
    Aurora Javate De Dios - Executive Director, Women and Gender Institute, Miriam College, Philippines
    Blathnaid de Faoite - Daughter of a survivor of prostitution, Ireland
    Mia de Faoite - Survivor of Prostitution & Philosophy student at The National University of Ireland, Ireland
    Yolande de La Bruère - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Veronica DeLorme - BA, MA, Retired, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Yvette Delorme - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Theresa Delory – QC, Canada
    Christiane Delteil - Présidente d'honneur du CIDFF 34, Membre du CT de l'Amicale du Nid "La babotte", Montpellier, France
    Line Demers - Adjointe administrative, Diplôme de commis-comptable, Maison d’hébergement pour elles des Deux Vallées, QC, Canada
    Kim Deniger - Policière, DEC en Techniques Policières, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Amelia Denny-Keys - Student, Langley, BC, Canada
    Linda Denny - MSW, RSW, Langley, BC, Canada
    Annie Denoncourt - Criminologue, Intervenante jeunesse, Ste-Brigitte-des-Saults, QC, Canada
    Claire Desaint - Vice-President, Réussir l'égalité femmes-hommes, France=
    Lise Desrochers - Éducatrice retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Carmen Dion - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada
    Françoise Dion - Donnacona, QC, Canada
    Christine Dionne - Employée du gouvernement du Canada - école de la fonction du Canada, Spécialiste en apprentissage et en développement, Baccalauréat en éducacion de l'anglais langue seconde de l'UQAM, Diplôme d'éducation aux adultes du Collège de Vancouver, Diplôme de business administration du Collège de Kingston, ON, Canada
    Dr. Peggy Dobbins - Port Lavaca, TX, United States
    Winifred Doherty - Good Shepherd Sister and NGO representative to the United Nations
    Isabelle Dostie, intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Francine Doucette - Secrétaire et aussi amie dans la famille internationale de la miséricorde, St-Eustache, QC, Canada
    Siméon Doucette - Retraité de la compagnie Bell canada et ami dans la fam. Int. De la miséricorde, St-Eustache, QC, Canada
    Jennifer Drew - Consultant to Scottish Women Against Pornography, United Kingdom
    Marie Drouin - Militante et survivante de la prostitution, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Laurie Drummond - Member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kim Dubé - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Geneviève Duché - présidente de l’Amicale du Nid, France
    Micheline Dufour - Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Rose Dufour - Anthropologue, Directrice générale et fondatrice de la Maison De Marthe, QC, Canada
    Caroline Dufresne - intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Nathalie Duhamel - Coordonnatrice RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Monique Dumais - O.S.U., Coordonnatrice pour l'association des religieuses pour les
    Droits des femmes, ARDF
    Claudette Dumont-Smith - Executive Director, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Lyne Duplain - Intervenante CALACS Charlevoix, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Arianne Duplessis - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Genevieve Dupuis - Travailleuse sociale CALACS de l’Outaouais, BAC en travail social, Aylmer, QC, Canada
    Ilaria Durigon - Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
    Lotte Kristine Dysted - Praktikant hos Danners videncenter, NGO Danner, Denmark=
    Eaves For Women, United Kingdom
    Dele Edokpayi - Esq., Dele Edokpayi and Co Law Chambers, Benin City, Nigeria
    F. Elodie Ekobena - Agente de pastorale sociale Villeray, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Vera Chigbufue Elue - Legal Counsel, Chicago Municipality Law Office, Chicago, United States
    Jean Enriquez - Executive Director, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Asia Pacific
    Priscilla Eppinger - Associate Professor of Religion, Chairperson of the Peace Studies Committee at Graceland University, United States
    Carla Francesca Erie - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Professor Maria Eriksson - Professor of Social Work, School for Health, Care, and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Sweden
    Dr. Elizabeth Evans - Lecturer in Politics, University of Bristol, UK
    Natasha Falle - SEXTRADE101, ON, Canada
    Danielle Fay - BAA, Thérapeute en santé globale et naturelle, St-Alfred, QC, Canada
    Madeleine Ferland - Criminologue, Cowansville, QC, Canada
    Elizabetta Ferrero - Turin, Italy
    Suzanna Finley - Equality Now, New York, NY, United States
    Mia Finn - Mother, Langley, BC, Canada
    Jean Fong – Frontline anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Janick Fontaine - Intervenante sensibilisation, Technicienne en travail social, Thurso, QC, Canada
    Suzanne Fortier - militante, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Mireille Fortin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nicole Fortin - Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Valérie Fortin - infirmière clinicienne, Brossard, QC, Canada
    Nicole Fouché - Présidente de Réussir l'égalité femmes-hommes, Cherchs associée, CNRS, Céna-mascipo-EHESS, Paris, France
    Isabelle Fournier – Intervenante, CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Monique Fournier - Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures, QC, Canada
    Lindsey Fox – Victoria, BC, Canada
    Kirsty Foy - Foy Allison Law Group, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Maggie Fredette - Coordonnatrice intervention CALACS, Sherbrooke, PQ, Canada
    Frappier, Julie - travailleuse CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Lina Fucà - Turin, Italy
    Carolyne Gagné - Professeur, Granby, QC, Canada
    Émilie Gagnon - Infographe, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
    Gabrielle Gagnon - Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Jocelyne Gagnon - Retraitée, Charlevoix, PQ, Canada
    Marielle Gagnon - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Mariette Gagnon - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Michèle Garceau - Citoyenne, Lachine, QC, Canada
    Joane Garon - Intervenante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Elizabeth Gautchi - Med, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Chantal Gauthier - Auxilière aux familles à domicile, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Noga Gayle - PhD, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Angela Gbemisola – United Kingdom
    Yolande Geadah - Author, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Associate Professor Daphne Gilbert BA, LLB, LLM – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Rosanna Giorgietti - Italy
    Catriona Gold - Executive Member CUPE 2278, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Leah Gruenpeter Gold - PhD Philosophy Dept. Tel Aviv University, Israel
    Tamara Gorin - Port Moody, BC, Canada
    Samantha Grey - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Associate Professor Vanessa Gruben B.Sc.H, LLB, LLM – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Jacqueline Gullion - MA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Irit Hakim - Safe World for Women, United Kingdom, Correspondent in Israel
    Carol Hanisch - Editor, MeetingGroundOnLine.org, Ellenville, NY, United States
    Hanne Helth - Board Member, Danish Women's Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Terrie Hendrickson - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Mary Honeyball - Member of the European Parliament, United Kingdom
    Donna M. Hughes - B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Professor & Carlson Endowed Chair, Gender & Women's Studies Program, University of Rhode Island, United States
    Ghada Jabbour - KAFA (enough) Violence & Exploitation, Lebanon
    Professor Martha Jackman - LL.B., LL.M., L.S.M. Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Lone Alice Johansen - Head of Information, The Secretariat of the Shelter Movement, Oslo, Norway
    Hedwig Johl - NGO in special consultative status with ECOSOC, Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd
    Guðrún Jónsdóttir - talskona Stígamóta, Stígamótum, Reykjavík, Iceland
    Helen Kelsey - Status of Women Committee, Surrey Teachers Association, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Hilla Kerner - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Jennifer Kim - BA Philosophy, Vancouver, BC, CanadA
    Daisy Kler - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Patsy Kolesar - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Katherine B. Lawrence - J.D. Member, Board of Directors, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jessica Lee - Front-line Crisis Worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Dorchen A. Leidholdt - Director, Center for Battered Women's Legal Services, Sanctuary for Families, New York
    Marissa Lorenz - Colorado, United States
    Laura L. Lovett - Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States
    Brenda Lucke - RN, BSN, BA, GNC(C), Langley, BC, Canada
    Ilaria Maccaroni - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Ainsley MacGregor - Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Grace Malkihara - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Malka Marcovich - Historian and feminist writer, International consultant, Paris, France
    Ane Mathieson - Fulbright Fellow & Staff with the Organization for Prostitution Survivors, Seattle, Unites States
    Philippe Mayer - Géomaticien, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Paola Mazzei - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Geraldine McCarthy - Act to Prevent Trafficking, Ireland
    Annie McCombs – Kalamazoo, MI, United States
    Maureen McGowan – New York, NY, United States
    Sheila McIntyre - Retired Professor of Law, University of Ottawa; specializing in Constitutional and Human Rights Law, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Nancy J. Meyer - Hyattsville, MD, United States
    Ashley Milbury – MA, Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Michelle Miller - DMin, Resist Exploitation, Embrace Dignity, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kathy Miriam - PhD, Brooklyn, NY, United States
    Adrienne Montani - Child Rights Advocate, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Michele Morek - PhD. UNANIMA International Inc. an ECOSOC-accredited NGO of the United Nations
    Dr. Helen Mott - Bristol Fawcett, United Kingdom
    Meghan Murphy - Journalist, Canada
    Ana Maria R. Nemenzo - National Coordinator, Woman Health Philippines
    Clare Nolan - Srs of the Good Shepherd, New York, NY, United States
    Celia Nord - Archaeologist, Lee Creek, BC, Canada
    Aibhlín O’Leary - Anti-Trafficking Project Coordinator Immigrant Council of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
    Catherine Olivier - Enseignante au collegial, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Sonia Ossorio - President, National Organization for Women, New York, NY, United States
    Marie-Noël Paradis - Intervenante, Québec, PQ, Canada
    María Paredes - Student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    So Eyun Park - BMLSc., Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Maggie Parks - Chief Executive, Women’s Rape and Sexual Abuse Centre, Cornwall, UK
    Niovi Patsicakis - B.Ed, M.Ed., Special Education Consultant, SENG-trained facilitator, Canada
    Dr. Jenny Petrak – MSc, PsychD
    Heidi Petrak - Msc. Nursing Professor, BC, Canada
    Kathleen Piovesan – Ph.D. Candidate, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States
    Dianne Post - Attorney, Phoenix Women Take Back the Night, Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    Brittney Powell - Feminist, BA, Nelson, BC, Canada
    Dr. Helen Pringle - School of Social Sciences UNSW, Sydney, Australia
    Chanelle Ram - Feminist nursing student, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Janice G. Raymond - Professor Emerita of Women's Studies and Medical Ethics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States
    Yasmin Rehman - Women's rights campaigner, member of the End Violence Against Women Coalition Board, UK
    Sanda Rodgers - Emeritus Professor, University of Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Nina Rose, MD - Vice President, Swedish Medical Women's Association, Sweden
    Isabelle Rouillard - Intervenante, QC, Canada
    Marion Runcie - Vancouver BC, Canada
    Louisa Russell - Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Persia Rutchinski - Sydney, Australia
    Susanne Rutchinski - BA, graphic designer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Valentina S., - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Peggy Sakow - Founding Co-Chair and Member, Temple Committee Against Human
    Trafficking, Temple Emanu-El-Beth Sholom, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Julieta Montaño Salvatierra - Abogada, Directora de la Oficina Jurídica Para la Mujer
    Yolanda Sanchez-Contreras - Communications Coordinator GSIJP Office Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd (An NGO in special consultative status with ECOSOC, UN)
    Aida F. Santos-Maranan - President & Executive Director, Board of Trustees Consultant on Gender, Development, Human Rights, Philippines
    Emma Scott - Director, Rights of Women, London, UK
    Amy Sebes - Founder, Association of Albanian Girls and Women (AAGW), Albania
    Brittney Sharma - Activist, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Idit Harel Shemesh - Machon Toda'a Awareness Center, Israel
    Sr. Terry Shields - MSHR President, Dawn's Place, Philadelphia, United States
    Associate Professor Penelope Simons – BA, LLB, LLM, PhD, Honours: Human Security Fellow 2002-2004 Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Ann Simonton - Media Watch, United States
    Stephanie-Grace Skrobisz - Santa Cruz, CA, United States
    Cherry Smiley - Nlaka’pamux/Thompson and Dine’/Navajo Nations, co-founder of Indigenous Women Against the Sex Industry, BC, Canada
    Keira Smith-Tague - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Linnea W. Smith - MD, North Carolina, United States
    Silvia Elida Ortiz Solis - Representante del Grupo Civil VI.D.A, Torreon, Mexico
    Lisa Sparrow - Skowkale First Nation, Front-line anti-violence worker Chilliwack, BC, Canada
    Emily Spence - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ivana Stazio – Italy
    Lisa Steacy - BA, front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Terrie Strange - Organizing for Women’s Liberation, Yuma, AZ, United States
    Katie Streibel - Transition House Worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter, BC, Canada
    Annie Sugier - President, Ligue du Droit International des Femmes, Paris, France
    Eun Soon Suh - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Eva-Britt Svensson - former Member of the European Parliament, Sweden
    Monina Geaga - Secretary-General, SARILAYA, Philippines
    Jenny Geng - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Mylène Geoffroy - Intervenante communautaire, Saint-Jean-de-Matha, QC, Canada
    Carol Giardina - Asst Professor, History Dept. Queens College, NY, United States
    Lucia Giffi - Turin, Italy
    Lise Giguère   - QC, Canada
    Marcella Gilardoni - Gilardoni Law Offices, Turin, Italy
    Dr. Aisha K. Gill - Reader in Criminology, University of Roehampton, UK
    Marie-Chanel Gillier – New Delhi, India
    Jay Ginn - Older Feminists Network, United Kingdom
    France Giroux - Coiffeuse, Granby, QC, Canada
    Phyllis Giroux - S.C., M.A.(J), Kelowna, BC, Canada
    Irene  Goodwin - Director, Evidence to Action, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Sonya Grenier - intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Leanore Gough - Front line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Francine Gravel - Réceptioniste à l'Infirmerie de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Terrebonne, QC, Canada
    Arlana Green - Victim Services Support worker, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Élaine Grisé - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Catherine Guay-Quirion - Étudiante universitaire à temps plein, Amos, QC, Canada
    Julie Guibord – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
    Joana Guillaume - Professeure de philosophie, Études juridiques, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Susanna Gulin - Finland
    Bernadette Gullion - Educator, BC, Canada
    Czarina M. Gutierrez - B.A., BC, Canada
    Francine Hamel - Retraitée, Diplômes de Maîtrise en littérature et Maîtrise en éducation (counselling de carrière), QC, Canada
    Nicole Hamel – coordonnatrice, CALACS, Lac-à-la-Tortue, PQ, Canada
    Joyce Harris - Chair Sisters of St. Ann B. C. Social Justice Committee, BC, Canada
    Jayme Hass - Junior Policy Analyst / Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Arnprior, ON
    Karah Hawkins - Victim Advocate CEASE, Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Katherine Hébert-Metthé - Consultante sur l'hypersexualisation, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Orla Hegarty – NL, Canada
    Cathryn Henley - President, Canadian Federation of University Women Cranbrook Club, Cranbrook, BC, Canada
    Céline Héon - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Loralie Hettler – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christine Honor - Australia
    Myriam Houde - Criminologue au Service de police de la Ville de Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Bernett Huang - Archival Studies, Fu Ren University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jade Hudon - QC, Canada
    Charlotta Huldt-Ramberg - Member of the board or the UN Women National Committee, Sweden
    Jacqui Hunt - Equality Now, London, United Kingdom
    Patricia Hynes - Retired Professor of Environmental Health, Boston University and Director, Traprock Center for Peace and Justice, Greenfield, MA, United States
    Valentina Iamotti - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Chantal Ismé - Organisatrice communautaire à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Cynthia Jacques - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Suzanne Jay - MA, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Patricia Jean - Linguiste, Féministe, Haïti
    Rhéa Jean - Ph. D in Philosophy (Laval University), Postdoctoral fellow at the
    University of Luxembourg
    Kimberly Jerome - Bookkeeper, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Sonya Johal - BSc, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Natasha Johnson - Graphic Designer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Valerie Judge - MBA, Management Consultant, Ireland
    Justice for Girls, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ludmila Karabaciska  - Étudiante à l’Université Concordia, Applied human science, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Annpôl Kassis - Paris, France
    Soka Handinah Katjasungkana - LBH-Apik, Semarang, Indonesia
    Ranjit Kaur - Ex Magistrate, ex-Director of Rights of Women UK, Lawyer, United Kingdom
    Roisin Kelly - Ireland
    Marilyn Kempf - Équipes d'Action Contre le Proxénétisme, Paris, France
    K. Kilbride - Surrey, BC, Canada
    Morgan King - Australia
    Ann Kirkey – Toronto, ON, Canada
    Antonia Kirkland - Equality Now, New York, United States
    Dr. Renate Klien - Spinifex Press, Australia
    Donée-Maude Kobin - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Donna Christie Kolkey - member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Monica Krake - Communications Director, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Izabela Krekora - Manager of fund development, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Cathrine Linn Kristiansen – Norway
    Leanne Kwan - PharmD, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Renée Labrie - St-Jean-de-l’île-d'Orléans, QC, Canada
    Sophie Labrie - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, Bromont, QC, Canada
    Maryse Lafleur - QC, Canada
    Isabelle Lafontaine - Étudiante au doctorat en travail social à l’Université de Montréal, Auxiliaire de recherche, Intervenante à l’association des familles monoparentales et recomposées de l’Outaouais, Professeure à la cité collégiale aux programmes de techniques de travail social et d’éducation spécialisée, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Judy Lafontaine, intervenante, CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Allison Laing - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jennifer E. Laing - RN, BScN, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Monique, S.M. Lallier - Supérieure générale de l'Institut des Soeurs de miséricorde de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Lee Lakeman - Women’s rights advocate, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ève Lamont - Réalisatrice, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nancy Langlois - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Catherine Lapointe - Canada
    Ghislaine Laporte - S.N.J.M., QC, Canada
    Marai Larasi - MBE, M.A. Executive Director, Imkaan, UK
    Marilyn Larocque - R.H.S.J.  Kingston, ON, Canada
    Myriam Larocque - Intervenante, Étudiante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Trine Porret Randahl Larsen - President, Women’s Council in Denmark (Kvinderådet)
    Gemma Laser - Belfast, ME, United States
    Widlande Laurol - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Claudia Lavigueur – Intervenante, CALACS de Chateauguay, Ste-Clotilde, QC, Canada
    Marie-Josée Lavoie - Secrétaire-administratrice RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Annette Lawson - Chair, the National alliance of Women's Organizations, United Kingdom
    M. Paule Lebel - Membre de la coordination du Québec de la marche mondiale des femmes, QC, Canada
    Aurélie Lebrun, PhD - QC, Canada
    Marie-Paule Lebrun - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Brigitte Lechenr - Woman, United Kingdom
    Patricia Leclair - Militante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marie Lecomte - Vice President, Libres Mariannes, LMS, Member of the European Women Lobby
    Alice Lee - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Young Sun Lee - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Éliane Legault-Roy - Responsable des communications à la Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Maitrise en science politique, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Ronitin Lentin - University Professor, Ireland
    Barbara Leon - Watsonville, CA, United States
    Carla Lesh - Kingston, NY, United States
    Constance Létourneau - Membre du Comité de Montréal contre la traite des personnes, QC, Canada
    Guilaine Levesque - Coordonnatrice CALACS, Baie-Comeau, PQ, Canada
    Lévesque, Sandra - intervenante CALACS, Val d'Or, QC, Canada
    Jacqueline Lewis - Emergency Medical Technician & Front line crisis worker at Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Maureen Lewis – Red Deer, AB, Canada
    Raïssa Leyan’Simbi - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Jytte Lindgaard - Lawyer, member of The Danish National Observatory on Violence Against Women
    Linklater, Sheila - Director of Finance, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Pak Ka Liu - Victim Services Medical Support Worker, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Josée Longchamps - Thérapeute, Tingwick, QC, Canada
    Letizia Longo - Accountant, Turin, Italy
    Lovely Jean Louis - Mémorante en lingUnited Statesitique et en études juridiques, Militante féministe, Haïti
    Emma Luke - Occupational Therapist, Australia
    Nathalie Lussier - Secrétaire-comptable, Granby, QC, Canada
    br/>     Linda MacDonald - Persons Against NST, Canada
    R. MacKenzie - Feminist campaigner, Scotland
    Alison Luke - Macquarie University, Sydney,  Australia
    Eliana Maestri - Feminist Group, Birmingham, UK
    Dr. Arianna Maffiotti - Turin Local Health Services, Moncalieri (TO), Italy
    Sarah M. Mah - BSc, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Sylvie Mantha - Chef Division recherche, développement et stratégie organisationnelle du Service de police de Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Maude Marcaurelle - Intervenante sociale, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC, Canada
    Berthe Marcotte - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Louise Marcotte - Survivante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Lorna Martin - Executive Assistant, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Angela Martinez - TTS, Coordonatrice des services d’interventions du Calacs francophone d’Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Virginia Martinez - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Annalise Masear-Gough – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Kristine Massey - Lecturer in Criminal Psychology, Canterbury Christchurch University, UK
    Maureen Master - Human Rights Lawyer, United States
    Jade Mathieu - Intervenante CALACS de Chateauguay, St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada
    Andrea Matolcsi - Equality Now, London, UK
    Diane Matte - Activiste féministe, Concertation des luttes contre l’exploitation sexuelle, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Maria Grazia Mauti - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    Paula May - Experte en ressources humaines, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Dr. Melanie McCarry - Guild Senior Research Fellow, Connect Centre for International Research on Gender and Harm, University of Central Lancashire, UK
    Caitlin McKellar - Board Member, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Myriam Meilleur – Stagiaire, CALACS Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Chiara Melloni - Gruppo Femminile Plurale, Italy
    Émilie Mercier-Roy - Survivante de la prostitution et co-fondatrice du Gîte L'Autre porte, Val-d'Or, QC, Canada
    Gunhild Mewes - Germany
    Jodie Millward - MCP, CCC, Aboriginal Family Counselor, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Suzy Mingus - Accountant, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Shiloh Minor - Teacher, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Phyllis Minsky - Teacher and Aboriginal Advocate, Queen Elizabeth Secondary School, Surrey, BC, Canada
    Rachel Moran - Founding Member of SPACE International (Survivors of Prostitution-Abuse Calling for Enlightenment), Ireland
    Magdala Moreau - Mémorante en linguistique, Militante féministe, Haïti
    Marthe Moreau - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Rachael Morgan – Student, Australia
    Émilie Morin-Rivest - Intervenante à la maison d'hébergement pour elles des deux vallées, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Julie Charbonneau Morin - Éducatrice spécialisée, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marcelle Morin – QC, Canada
    Nathalie Morin - Commis comptable, Amos, QC, Canada
    Libby Morrison - United Kingdom
    Françoise Morvan - Vice-présidente de la Coordination française pour le lobby européen des femmes
    Rebecca Mott - Survivor of indoor prostitution, United Kingdom
    Jeanne Françoise Mouè - La Maison, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Debs Munn - Refugee Settlement Worker, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Lily Munroe - Women’s rights advocate and abolitionist, Australia
    Jeannine Nadeau - Infirmière, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Marie-Michelle Nault - Survivante, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Amy Nahwegahbow - Senior Policy Analyst/ Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON
    Frederica Newell - Ireland
    Donna-Marie Newfield - Therapist, Canada
    Kendra Newman - Heiltsuk Nation, front line anti-violence worker, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Liette Nobert - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Jane Norlund – Norway
    Dr. Caroline Norma - Lecturer in Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia
    Ana Novakovic – Front-line anti-violence worker, Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Zdenka Novakovic - Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Daniella Nunes-Taveira - Intervenante à la maison d'amitié - télécommunications à l'hôpital d'Ottawa, Technique de réadaptation et de justice pénale et présentement à l'université en criminologie, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Dr. Monica O'Connor - Independent Researcher, Ireland
    Maura O’Donohue - Doctor, Ireland
    Katrin Öberg - Sweden
    Lis Ehmer Olesen - Board member of the Women’s Council and The Danish National Observatory on Violence Against Women, Denmark
    Maren Ollman - Turin, Italy
    Kajsa Olsson – Sweden
    Alina Olszewska - Turin, Italy
    Blessing Osatohanmwen - Turin, Italy
    Oti Anukpe Ovrawah - Director, Nigerian Human Rights Commission, Abuja, Nigeria
    Angel Love Owens – Perth, Australia
    Geneviève Pagé - Phd, Professeure de science politique à l’UQAM, Montréal, QC,   Canada
    Karina Painchaud - QC, Canada
    Celeste Pang - Freelance Bookkeeper, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Monique Paradis - Enseignante retraitée, QC, Canada
    Giulia Parm - Turin, Italy
    Carla Pastorino - Genova, Italy
    Kim Pate – Executive Director, Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Yolaine Paul - Responsable de bibliothèque, Études administratives et comptable, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Sokie Paulin - Glendale, CA, United States
    Françoise Pellerin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Gisèle Pellerin - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Céline Pelletier - Maison Interlude, Hawkesbury, ON, Canada
    Lise Perras - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Julie-Anne Perrault - Féministe, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Nathalie Perreault - Travailleuse culturelle et féministe (abolitionniste), Montréal, QC, Canada
    Bridget Perrier - SexTrade101, ON, Canada
    Marisa Perrone - Turin, Italy
    Gaëtane Pharand - Centre Victoria, Sudbury, ON, Canada
    Jacqueline Picard – QC, Canada
    Stéphanie Picard - Intervenante, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada
    Elizabeth A. Pickett - LL.M, ON, Canada
    Ellen Pilcher – Activist & Writer, United Kingdom
    Candice Pilgrim – Lawyer, Belleville, ON, Canada
    Maudy Piot - Présidente de l'Association Femmes Pour le Dire, Femmes pour Agir, France
    Marie-Christine Plante - Ph.D. candidate sociology, UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Anne Plourde - Doctorante en science politique UQAM, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ, Canada
    Monique Potin - Bibliothécaire et féministe, Val-d’Or, QC, Canada
    Claudette Poupart - Retraitée, Boucherville, PQ, Canada
    Jalysha Pratap – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Colette Price - Midwife, Feminist, NY, United States
    Claudia Quendo - Turin, Italy
    Marielle Quenneville - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Suzanne Quinn - Réseau femmes sud-ouest, Sarnia, ON, Canada
    Claudia Ramirez - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Sandra Ramos - Founder/Executive Director, Strengthen Our Sisters, Shelter and Advocacy for homeless/battered women and children, NJ, United States
    Natalie Ranspot - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jody Raphael - Visiting Professor of Law, Depaul University, United States
    Anne Rasmussen - LivaRehab, Denmark
    Christelle Raspolini - Présidente du comité Ni putes ni soumises de Guadeloupe, Le gosier, Guadeloupe
    Anyta Raymond - Reviseur, Cowansville, QC, Canada
    Anber Raz - Equality Now, London, UK
    Sarah Mélodie Razafintsehere - Bénévole GAP, Chateauguay, QC, Canada
    Jennifer Reed - Rain and Thunder Collective, MA, United States
    Stephanie Reifferscheid - BA, Women’s Advocate and counselor for more than 25 years, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jennifer Remnant – United Kingdom
    Sandrine Ricci - Phd Student and Assistant professor (UQAM), Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Hélène Richard - Intervenante auprès des femmes, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Mylène Richer - Éducatrice en garderie, Beauharnois, QC, Canada
    Jenny Rickmann - Nurse, Germany
    Chantelle Rideout - MFA University of New Brunswick, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Nella Righetti - Turin, Italy
    Cossette Rivera - Equality Now, New York, United States
    Haile Rivera - New York, United States
    Chantal Robitaille - Intervenante CALACS Chateauguay, Beauharnois, QC, Canada
    Eleanor Roffman - Ed.D. Professor and Director of Field Training, Division of Counseling and Psychology, Graduate School of Arts and Social Sciences, Lesley University, MA, United States
    Caitlin Roper - WA State Coordinator, Collective Shout, Australia
    Carissa Ropponen - BA, Executive and Development Assistant, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Garine Roubinian - Rain and Thunder Collective, MA, United States
    Nayiree Roubinian - Rain and Thunder Collective, MA, United States
    Justine Rouse-Lamarre - Étudiante à la maîtrise en histoire à l'UQAM, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
    Gerardine Rowley – Ruhama, Ireland
    Lorraine Roy - Militante et survivante de la prostitution, St-Jérôme, QC, Canada
    Michèle Roy - Organisatrice communautaire, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Sylvie Roy - Désigner, St-Pie, QC, Canada
    Rita Ruel - Enseignante retraitée, QC, Canada
    Assistant Professor Rakhi Ruparelia B.Sc., B.S.W., LL.B.  M.S.W., LL.M. – University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Dr. Emma Rush - Lecturer in Ethics and Philosophy, Charles Stuart University, Australia
    Roweena Russell – United Kingdom
    Marie-Claude Saindon - Intervenante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Anaïs Salamon - Bibliothécaire en chef bibliothèque d'études islamiques de l’Université McGill, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Roberta Salper - Resident Scholar, Women's Studies Research Center, Brandeis University Boston, MA, United States
    Myles Sanchez - President, Bagong Kamalayan Prostitution Survivors' Collective, Manila, Philippines
    Mélanie Sarroino - LL.M., Agente de liaison et de promotion RQCALACS (Regroupement québécois des centres d’aide et de lutte contre les agressions à caractère sexuel), Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Jeanne Sarson - Persons Against Non-State Torture, Canada
    Katharina Sass - Norway
    Kathryn Scarbrough - PhD, East Brunswick, NJ, United States
    Sarah Schwartz - United States
    Karen Segal - B.A, JD candidate 2014, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Solveig Senft - Abolitionist, Member of Terre des Femmes, Germany
    Jonnie Sharp – NC, United States
    Carole Shea - Militante, Rawdon, QC, Canada
    Professor Elizabeth Sheehy - LLB, LLM, LLD (Hons LSUC), 2014 Recipient of the CBA Ramon Hnatyshyn Award for Law
    Victoria Sherman - Italy
    Maire Ni Shuilleabhain - Support worker with women affected by prostitution and THB, Ireland
    Linda Shuto - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Christiane Sibillotte - Comité justice sociale des soeurs auxiliatrices, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Rachèle Simard - Artiste, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Indrani Sinha - Executive Director, Sanlaap, India
    Georgette Sirois - Infirmière retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Chris Sitka – Australia
    Shannon Slight – Tasmania, Australia
    Betty M. Smith - Camden, ME, United States
    Peggy R. Smith - Lincolnville, ME, United States
    Joan Smurthwaite - Catholic Women's League WA, Australia
    Mudahogora Solange - Maitrise en sociologie avec spécialisation en études des femmes de l'université d'Ottawa, Représentante de Femmes action en région métropolitaine de Halifax, NS, Canada
    Carole Anne Soong - University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Terre Spencer - United States
    Anne-Marie Spera - Travaillese Sociale, Gatineau, QC, Canada
    Nadine Spuls - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Michèle St-Amand - Sexologue et psychothérapeute, Laval, QC, Canada
    Johanne St-Amour - Féministe, QC, Canada
    Ginette St-Jean - Val Joli, QC, Canada
    Professor Joanne St. Lewis BA, LLB - University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ONCanada
    Cornelia Sternberg - Germany
    Holly Stevens – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Hanne Storset - Analyzer, Social Sciences, Norway
    Johanna Strand - Teacher and feminist, Norway
    Emily Streibel - Raymond, AB, Canada
    Eva  Streibel - Raymond, AB, Canada
    Agnete Strøm - The Women’s Front of Norway, Bergen, Norway
    Leah Strudwick – Student, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Amanda Sullivan - Equality Now, New York, United States
    Doris Sullivan - Militante abolitionniste, Rawdon, QC, Canada
    Rose Sullivan - Militante et survivante de la prostitution, Rawdon, QC, Canada
    Elsie Suréna - Intervenante dans le domaine de la violence contre les femmes, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Jacqueline Sutton - BA, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Fumi Suzuki - Executive Director, Space Allies, Japan
    Hélène Sylvain - Conseillère pédagogique, St-Jérome, QC, Canada
    Geneviève Szczepanik - Ph.d., Montréal, QC, Canada
    Carolina Tafuri - Italy
    Mairead Tagg - Clinical Psychologist and specialist in gender based violence, Scotland
    Julie Talbot - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Elsie Tan - MSN, member of University Women’s Club, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Emilia Tedesco - Turin, Italy
    Karin Temerpley – Melbourne, Australia
    Danièle Tessier - Sociologue, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Randi Theil - Head of Secretariat, Women’s Council in Denmark (Kvinderådet)
    Maj Britt Theorin - F. member of European Parliament and chairwomen of the Committee of Women’s Right and Equality
    Carole Thériault - Intervenante sociale au CALACS, St-Alphonse, QC, Canada
    Mélanie Thétrault - Intervenante, Granby, QC, Canada
    Joan Thomas - RN, PhD, Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    Nia Thomas - Artist, London, United Kingdom
    Irene Tsepnopoulos-Elhaimer - Executive Director, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Gale Tyler - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Nicolien Van Luijk - MA, PhD (c), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Toni Van Pelt - Public Policy Director, Institute for Science and Human Values, Inc. FL, United States
    Megan Watt - Leduc, AB, Canada
    Karin Werkman - Researcher, the Netherlands
    Chloe Westlake - BA, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
    Dr. Rebecca Whisnant - Director of Women's and Gender Studies, University of Dayton, United States
    Margareta Winberg - Former deputy prime minister and minister for gender equality, Sweden
    Crystal Wong – Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Jodie Woodward - Head of Operations, Nia Ending Violence, UK
    Linda Thompson - Women's Support Project, Scotland
    Virginie Tiberghien - Action ontarienne contre la violence faite aux femmes Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Yvonne Tierney – ON, Canada
    Léa Trahan - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Alice Tremblay - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Karine Tremblay - Agente de liaison RQCALACS, Montréal, PQ, Canada
    Dr. Jill Trenholm - Lecturer/researcher, Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden
    Rita Trottier - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Ada Tsang - BSW, Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Louise Turmel - Enseignante retraitée, Ville de Québec, QC, Canada
    Jane Turner - Teacher, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Anna Ulatowshki - Germany
    Sara Ungar – ON, Canada
    Nordic Model Advocates, United Kingdom
    Adina Ungureanu - Ville Saint-Laurent, QC, Canada
    Helen Uwangue - Benin City, Nigeria
    France Vallières - Retraitée, Rive Sud, QC, Canada
    Sylvie Van Brabant - Cinéaste, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Claudette Vandal - Montréal, QC, Canada
    Helen Vasa - Registered Clinical Counsellor, Canada
    Roberta Veenstra - Engaged Citizen, Nanaimo, BC, Canada
    Marie Hélène Veillette - Conseillère en rééducation, Granby, QC, Canada
    Sue Veneer - United Kingdom
    Michèle Vianès - Présidente de regards de femmes, Lyon, France
    Marilou Vidal - Bénévole GAP, Mercier, QC, Canada
    Monique Vigneault - Retraitée, Amos, QC, Canada
    Jeanne Villeneuve - Directrice des institutions patrimoniales Blueland, Conseillère de quartier mairie du 7° arrondissement de Paris, Présidente de l’Association quartier Breteuil de Paris, France
    Ariane Vinet-Bonin - Étudiante à la maîtrise en service social à l’Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Dr. Judith Walker - Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Megan Walker - Executive Director, London Abused Women's Centre, London, ON, Canada
    Zuilmah Wallis - Ireland
    Dr. Renate Walther - Germany
    Pei-Ju Wang - Asian Women Coalition Ending Prostitution, Canada
    Claire Warmels - Étudiante en philosophie à Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Simone Watso - Exited survivor, Australia
    Maureen Watt - Citoyenne, St-Lin-Laurentides, QC, Canada
    Morgan Westcott – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Vicki Wharton - Antipornculture, United Kingdom
    Cindy Wilkinson – ON, Canada
    Jeri Williams - Survivor 2 Survivor, Portland, OR, United States
    Jacqueline Wilson - Businesswoman and Philanthropist, Board Chair, Women Against Violence Against Women Rape Crisis Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ursula Wojciechowski - Translator, Germany
    Elizabeth Wolber – Teacher at Fraser Heights Secondary School, Collective member with Vancouver Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Angela Wong - Edmonton, AB, Canada
    Maria Wong - Front line anti-violence worker Vancouver Rape Relief & Women’s Shelter, BC, Canada
    Corey Lee Wrenn – founder Vegan Feminist Network, United States
    Pauline Yargeau - Administratrice d’un centre d’aide et de lutte contre les agressions à caractère sexuel, Amos, QC, Canada
    Elisabeth Zadnick – QC, Canada
    Kerstin Zander - Re-Empowerment e.V., Deutschland
    Clorinde Zephir - Professeure de littérature française, Directrice d'organisation féministe, Haïti

Men in support of the letter

    Brian Africa – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Dr. Ifode Ajari - Medical doctor, United States
    Iroro Ajari - Nigeria
    Obuks Ajari - Lagos, Nigeria
    Kevin Ault - High School Teacher, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Louis Bélisle - Consultant en développement organisationnel, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Alain Benoit - Travailleur du réseau de la santé, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Bert Bjarland - Vice President, Profeministmiehet, Finland
    Didier Bois - Enseignant, Paris, France
    Andrew Bomberry - Policy Analyst/ Researcher, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Paolo Botti - Executive Director, Associazione Amici di Lazzaro, Italy
    Dr. Christoph Brake – Germany
    Dr. Robert Brannon, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College CUNY.
    National Chairperson, NOMAS Task Group on Pornography, Prostitution, and Sex-Trafficking
    Mordecai Briemberg - Member of StopWar.ca, retired College Instructor, Burnaby, BC, Canada
    Stan Burditt - Founder, MAST-Men Against Sexual Trafficking, Canada
    Giorgio Carpita - Italy
    Denis Carrier - QC, Canada
    Philippe Fortier Charette - Travailleur, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
    Mathieu Charland-Faucher - Organisateur communautaire, Granby, QC, Canada
    Gagan Chhabra - Student, Norway
    Alex Coles - BFA Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Guillaume Danis - Militant, Saint-Lin, QC, Canada
    James Darbouze - Enseignant-chercheur, Militant syndical, Port-au-Prince, Haïti
    Jhonson Desir - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Timothy Dickau - DMin, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Martin Dufresne - Journalist, Le COUAC, Canada
    Paul Eid - Professeur au Département de sociologie de l’UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Pius Elue - Chicago, IL, United States
    Renel Exentus - Militant Assumer Ayiti, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marco Fasoli - Turin, Italy
    Professor Gene Feder - Professor of Primary Health Care, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Professor Bruce Feldthusen - former Dean, BA Queen’s, JD Michigan, LLB Western and LLM Michigan
    Antonio Chiadò Fiorio Tin - Mayor, Massello Municipality, Province of Turin, Italy
    Joshua Flavell - Sydney, Australia
    Nicolas Flechier - Travailleur social, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Matt Fodor – ON, Canada
    Daniele Gaglianone - Film Producer, Turin, Italy
    Adam Gagnon - Militant, Beauharnois, QC, Canada
    Martin Gallié - Professeur de droit à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Canada
    Gabriel Garcia - Comptable, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge, QC, Canada
    Claude Gendron - Retraité, Responsable des achats à la maison mère des Soeurs de miséricorde, Brossard, QC, Canada
    Ioan Gi-Kwong - Étudiant, Bromont, QC, Canada
    Massimo Gianasso - Turin Municipality Police Force, Turin, Italy
    Maurizio Gili - Accountant, Senior Partner, Maurizio Gili & Co, Turin, Italy
    Azlan Graves - LPN/Outreach nurse, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Chris Green - Director White Ribbon Campaign, UK
    Michael Horowitz - CEO, 21 Century Initiatives, Principal Author of the US Trafficking Victims
    Protection Act
    Benedict Hynes - PhD candidate, Simon Fraser University, BC, Canada
    Biko Ismé-René - Étudiant, Artiste, Travailleur, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Dr. Robert Jensen - University of Texas at Austin, Texas, United States
    Thomas H. Kemsley - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Edoardo Kibongui - Italian Baptist Union of Churches, Turin, Italy
    Anton Klepke - Sweden
    Claude Labrecque - QC, Canada
    Benjamin Lach – Germany
    Marie-Thérèse Lacourse – QC, Canada
    Matthew K. Laing - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Michael Laxer - Toronto City Council Candidate-Ward 6, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Gabriel Legault - Mi-retraité service quincaillerie et ami dans la fam. Int. De la miséricorde, Lachine, QC, Canada
    Gabriele Lenzi - Resistenza femminista, Italy
    David Lohan - Co-Author "Open Secrets: An Irish Perspective on Trafficking & Witchcraft", Ireland
    Oscar Sanchez Viesca Lopez - Miembro activo del grupo civil VI.D.A y amnrdac, Torreon, Mexico
    Eli Mack-Hardiman – NY, United States
    Claudio Magnabosco - Director and co-founder, Associazione Ragazze di Benin City, Italy
    Guy Malette - Responsable des Achats et de la maintenance de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Pascal Marcil - Senior specialist, Bromont, QC, Canada
    Dr. Michael Markwick - Capilano University, North Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Colin Mingus – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Josua Mata - Secretary-General, SENTRO Labor Center, Philippines
    Hugh McElveen - Independent Researcher, Ireland
    David McHugh - Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Ronald Meyer - Halfmoon Bay, BC, Canada
    Patrick Morin - Militant, Valleyfield, QC, Canada
    Ryan Munn – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jonathan Nambu - Executive Director, Samaritana Transformation Ministries, Inc., Philippines
    Michael Nestor - Australia
    David H. Nguyen - Editor-in-Chief, Cancer InCytes Magazine, USA
    Irwin Oostindie - Media producer, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Arinze Orakue - Director of PR, Nigerian National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP), Abuja, Nigeria
    Joe Osagie - Greater London City Council, London, UK
    Lucky Oseye - Turin, Italy
    Simeon Pang – Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Pascale Parent - Interventante CALACS de Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada
    Dan Peters - Partnership Co-ordinator, Native Women’s Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Alain Philoctète - Coordonateur de programmes, Poète, Maîtrise en pratique de recherche et action publique, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Richard Poulin - Professeur émérite département de sociologie et d'anthropologie de l’Université d'Ottawa, Professeur associé à l’Institut de recherches et d'études féministes (IREF) de l’Université du
    Québec à Montréal, Ville Mont-Royal, QC, Canada
    Professor Keith Pringle - Professor of Sociology with a specialism in social work, Uppsala University, Sweden; Adjungeret Professor, Aalborg University, Denmark; and Honorary Professor, University of Warwick, UK
    Fred Robert - Fondateur, Zéromacho
    Vincent Romani - Professeur régulier, département de science politique à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Marc Andris Saint Louis - Travailleur social, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Dario Saluz - Architect, Turin, Italy
    Hugh Samson - B.Sc, P. Geo. Vancouver, BC, Canada
    François Savard - Directeur de la Maison mère des Soeurs de Miséricorde, Montréal, QC, Canada
    Philippe Scelles - Président d'honneur et vice-président de la Fondation Scelles
    Yves Scelles - Vice-président de la Fondation Scelles, France
    Reece K. Sellin - Fort Saskatchewan, AB, Canada
    Marc André Sullivan - Militant, Montréal, QC, Canada
    François Trudel - Directeur d'entreprise Chandelles tradition, St-Constant, QC, Canada
    Elcid Vedinel - Linguiste, Membre d'organisation féministe, Haïti
    Ray Justin Ventura - National Chairperson, Youth and Students Advancing Gender Equality (YSAGE), Philippines
    Max Waltman - PhD Candidate, Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden
    Marv Wheale - Home Health Air, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Jonathan R. Wilson - Ph.D., Carey Theological College, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Carlo Italo Zanotti - Architect, Senior Partner, Artom & Zanotti Associati, Turin, Italy
    David Zimmerman - GEMS Council of Daughters, National Survivor Network, Polaris Project Legislative Circle, United States of America

Footnotes

[1] Canada (Attorney General) v.Bedford, 2012 ONCA 186, para. 117, online at: http://www.ontariocourts.ca/decisions/2012/2012ONCA0186.pdf

[2] Canada (Attorney General) v. Bedford, 2013 SCC 72, para. 86, online at: http://scc-csc.lexum.com/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/13389/index.do.

[3] Seo-Young Cho, Axel Dreher, Eric Neumayer,“Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?” World Development, vol. 41, pp. 67–82, 2013.

[4] Ministry of Justice (New Zealand), “Street-Based Workers,” Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution Reform Act 2003, chap. 8, 2008, online at: http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/commercial-property-and-regulator.......

[5] Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (Germany), Report by the Federal Government on the Impact of the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act), July 2007, at 79. online at: www.mvcr.cz/soubor/05-regulating-legal-situation-of-prostitutes.aspx. See also, Ministry of Security and Justice (The Netherlands), Daalder, A.L., WODC (Research and Documentation Centre), “Conclusions,” Prostitution in the Netherlands since the lifting of the brothel ban, 2007, online at: https://english.wodc.nl/onderzoeksdatabase/1204e-engelse-vertaling-.......

http://www.straight.com/news/632301/open-letter-calls-nordic-approa...

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Replies to This Discussion

My father trafficked me throughout my entire childhood. It looked nothing like people think.
by Melanie Cholish, Upworthy, July 31, 2020

I saw this poster today and I was going to just let it go, but then I kept feeling tugged to say something.

While this poster is great to bring attention to the issue of child trafficking, it is a "shocking" picture of a young girl tied up. It has that dark gritty feeling. I picture her in a basement tied to a dripping pipe.

While that sounds awful, it's important to know that trafficking children in the US is not all of that. I can't say it never is—I don't know. What I do know is most young trafficked children aren't sitting in a basement tied up. They have families, and someone—usually in their family—is trafficking them.

I'm pretty open about my story. My father trafficked me from the ages of about 5 or 6 until I was a teenager. Knowing this, I can say, I was never once tied up in a dark place such as this picture. It's important for people to educate themselves on what trafficking can really look like.

Many, many times I walked into an amusement parks dressing room—Hershey, Dorney, etc.—with my father, told to wait in the stall, and a few minutes later another man came in acting like he was looking for his daughter. And that easily, a "drop" was made. Out I would walk holding his hand, nothing anyone would think twice about. Usually I'd be given something like an ice cream cone, etc.

And like me, these children are often not treated "badly." I mean, yes, they're treated awfully and violated beyond words. I mean they're are not hit, tied up, or beat up. Most of the time, they're treated with fake kindness (which really fucks up children's trust later on in life). But they're often praised, given treats, and made to feel like what is happening is a good (and normal or because they're special.

How many vacations we went on where I was left for a minute at the pool, until a man came and I left with him for a while. Airports where I was passed over to another man in a crowd, looking like any girl going from her dad or uncle to her dad or uncle. Again, a public drop and nothing suspicious.

Most children trafficked in the US are so conditioned they don't know anything else. It's their normal. I think back as an adult and think, "Why didn't I scream out for help? Make a scene?" But I had to forgive my inner child. There was no reason I knew to scream out for help. I wasn't in danger; this was just my normal life.

I say all of this to simply say, it's really important we bring attention to child trafficking in the US. VERY important. And posters like this can get the conversation going, but we also need to educate people that it doesn't all look like this. I lived in Robesonia, a tiny nothing town. My father was a little league coach. My mother knew and helped some with these happenings; and she was just a stay-at-home, small town mom. These things happen everywhere and can look very normal.

Best thing we can do is talk to children. We don't need to be graphic; but teachers, schools, need to talk to children about things like this in a child-safe way. Assume these children aren't being taken to doctors. Teachers can make a huge difference. Talk to children. Go with your gut. Schools need to not be scared to act on what they feel. Conrad Wesier had a social worker in the elementary school who pulled me out of class on more than one occasion after teachers noticed "things" and it went nowhere. Social services were never notified. And they should have been. Period.

And what you can do is watch. Pay attention. Be mindful. If you're waiting in line at a park, notice who goes in and out with what child. If you see something; speak up. If you're wrong, fine you ruined someone's day, apologize. If you're right, you saved someone's life.

https://www.upworthy.com/what-child-trafficking-looks-like

The dangers of rebranding prostitution as ‘sex work’

In an extract from her new book, Pimp State, activist Kat Banyard argues that prostitution is sexual exploitation. Decriminalising this industry only legitimises the abuse of women
‘Using the term “sex work” as if it was an adequate and appropriate shorthand serves a deeply political goal. ‘
by Kat Banyard, The Guardian, 7 Jun 2016

The steady creep of “sex work” into 21st-century vernacular is neither incidental nor accidental. The term didn’t just pop up and go viral. The Global Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organisation that openly campaigns for brothel-keeping and pimping to be recognised as legitimate jobs, credits itself as largely responsible for “sex work” replacing “prostitution” as the go-to terminology for institutions such as the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/Aids (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

“More than mere political correctness,” the NSWP proudly states, “this shift in language had the important effect of moving global understandings of sex work toward a labour framework.” The fact that prostitution involves sexual acts and some kind of payment is a given. However, engaging with it first and foremost as a labour issue, using the term “sex work” as if it was an adequate and appropriate shorthand for what takes place in strip clubs, on porn sets and in brothels, serves a deeply political goal. Not only does this framework shrink the field of analysis to the seller (to the exclusion of men’s demand and its social impact), it hides what should be front and centre of our response to the transaction: the inherent sexual abuse.

The notion that being paid to perform sex acts should be recognised as a kind of service work is the rationale underpinning legalised prostitution regimes. It’s an idea that has managed to unite an eclectic mix of left and rightwing voices. Peter Frase – a member of the editorial board of Jacobin, a magazine billed as a leading voice of the American left – is in favour of “legalising all forms of sex work for adults”. He claims: “Not only does sex work destabilise the work ideology, it also conflicts with a bourgeois ideal of private, monogamous sexuality.” Tim Worstall, writing for British rightwing thinktank the Adam Smith Institute, shares Frase’s policy conclusion, though his reasoning contrasts somewhat. As a type of commercial activity, Worstall insists the prostitution trade is “obviously free market” and that “renting out body parts is and should be no different from lending them out for fun or for free”.

The whole point of the sex industry is that it offers men the chance to buy sexual access to women who do not want to have sex with them – otherwise they wouldn’t have to pay. Masking its fundamental purpose thus becomes the primary PR challenge for the prostitution, pornography and strip club trades if they are to survive – maybe even thrive – in a society that has decided, at least in principle, that women are not subordinate sex objects and rape is a bad thing.
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Perhaps the single most effective strategy hit upon so far is to pump out the myth contained in the term “sex work”: the myth that it is possible to commodify consent.

Jeremy Corbyn’s views on the sex trade sum up the male left’s betrayal of women

How can sexual consent be a thing that can be bought and sold, yet we can still talk with a straight face about there being such concepts as healthy sexual relationships and meaningful consent? If, while having sex with someone, you feel repulsed by them touching you, afraid of what they might do, degraded and humiliated by the sexual acts, hurt by the hateful words they’re whispering in your ear, sore because he’s the fifth man you’ve had sex with today, exhausted from it all, traumatised, abused – the fact that you’ll get a bit of cash at the end does not change anything. There is no invisible hand in the prostitution market that magically disappears the lived experience of sexual abuse.

‘The term “sex work” is a myth: the myth that it is possible to commodify consent.’

Poverty can, of course, play a highly influential role in women’s entry into prostitution. However, bluntly asserting that poverty is the singular cause of the prostitution trade fails to acknowledge that men’s poverty has not begot a global demand from women to pay them for sex acts, that without men’s demand there would be no trade at all, or the highly specific abuses that so commonly characterise women’s entry into it.

Research by the British Medical Journal found that, in three UK cities, half of women in outdoor prostitution, and a quarter of women in indoor prostitution, reported having been subject to violence by a sex buyer in the previous six months. Of the violence they had ever experienced at the hands of sex buyers, women on the streets most frequently reported being kicked, slapped or punched, while women in saunas or flats most frequently reported attempted rape (17% of women based indoors had experienced this, as had 28% of women on the streets). A separate study, in Sociology of Health and Illness, involving more than 100 women engaged in flat-based prostitution in London, highlighted how an indoor setting can have its own particular coercive influence. Each day women had to pay up to £250 in rent, as well as up to £60 a day for a maid (who, in practice, often operated like a pimp, sometimes controlling which sex buyers the women saw), plus a range of other expenses. On average, a woman was paid for sex by 76 men each week.

The Economist’s 2014 article, titled A personal choice, warding off “puritans and do-gooders” from meddling with the sex trade, insists that governments should “leave consenting adults who wish to buy and sell sex to do so safely and privately online”. This builds on the claim that prostitution is sex work by attempting to frame that work simply as a series of individual, private exchanges set apart from the rest of society. Milton Friedman, the late economist and proponent of unbridled free-market capitalism, implied much the same when asked about prostitution in 2006. “You put a willing buyer [with] a willing seller, and it’s up to them. You can argue with them that it’s foolish, you can argue with them that it’s a bad thing to do, but I don’t see any justification for bringing the police into it.” But the sex industry, like any market, doesn’t operate in a vacuum, leaving the rest of society miraculously untouched by its presence. Markets are, as philosopher Debra Satz says, social institutions: “All markets depend for their operation on background property rules and a complex of social, cultural, and legal institutions.” Markets are a matter for everyone.

Trades weave themselves into the fabric of society. We know this. We place all kinds of restrictions and prohibitions on markets precisely because of this. Because the risks, particularly to the most vulnerable and marginalised in society, are just too high. Commercial exchanges that people may agree to participate in without a gun being held to their head – such as sales of human organs, voting rights, bonded labour contracts – are nonetheless deemed legally off limits. It’s the line in the sand that societies draw to say that the harm to those directly involved, to third parties, or to the bedrock principles necessary for equal citizenship, is simply too great. Some trades are too toxic to tolerate.

Amnesty International in global programme to decriminalise sex work

A basic principle that is utterly indispensable to ending violence against women, not to mention to our fundamental concept of humanity, is that sexual abuse is never acceptable. Not even when the perpetrator has some spare cash and the person he’s abusing needs money. Cheerleaders of brothels, porn sets and strip clubs would have us believe that the sex trade levitates above the level of social values and cultural beliefs. But no one can opt out of its effects. A market in sexual exploitation, accepted and tolerated, influences who we all are as individuals, and who we are as a people.

A society that acts in law and language as if men who pay to sexually access women are simply consumers, legitimately availing workers of their services, is a society in deep denial about sexual abuse – and the inequality underpinning it.

•Pimp State: Sex, Money and the Future of Equality by Kat Banyard (Faber & Faber, £12.99). To order a copy for £10.39, go to bookshop.theguardian.com or call the Guardian Bookshop on 0330 333 6846. Free UK p&p over £10, online orders only. Phone orders min. p&p of £1.99.

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/jun/06/prostitution-s...

Women of colour against the sex trade

Left to right: Mickey Meji, Ne’cole Daniels, Taina Bien-Aimé, Bridget Perrier, Ally Diamond

In Dr Vednita Carter’s Black Minnesota neighbourhood, white middle class men cruise the streets in luxury cars, looking for Black girls and young women to pay to use and abuse sexually. This echoes back to the white man’s white god-given right to unlimited sexual access to Black women and girls during the long centuries of slavery.

There isn’t much that Dr Carter doesn’t know about prostitution and its inherent racism. When she was 18, she and her white friend answered an advert for dancers. They were channelled into separate white girl and Black girl tracks, and before long Dr Carter found herself sucked into prostitution.

But she was one of the lucky ones. Unlike so many women, she got out of the trade relatively quickly and with her life intact. She subsequently set up a not-for-profit, Breaking Free, to help other women and girls get out. In February she was in England to speak at the ‘Women of Colour Against the Sex Trade’ event, hosted by SPACE International, an organisation of prostitution survivors.

She told us about the group work she does with young women, some still in that life, some taking their first steps out of it. When you ask them what they like about prostitution, she said they talk about how good it feels to have money. But when asked how they feel when they get down on all fours and take his dick into their mouth, they all start to cry.

Dr Carter said, “Don’t get me wrong. The majority of women in prostitution don’t make a lot of money.” Mickey Meji, from South Africa, continued this theme saying prostitution is not a way out of poverty. Most women enter it poor and those that manage to get out, end up even poorer, but now scarred emotionally, physically and mentally.

Bridget Perrier, an indigenous Canadian woman, who was brutally pimped from the age of 12, said that in her native language, there’s no word for prostitution. Traditionally, women and girls were seen as water carriers and life givers. It was the white colonialists who introduced prostitution to her people. And what a brilliant mechanism it has proved to be for decimating communities.

Prostitution defines women as commodities, objects to be used, so the power men have over them is more or less total. Perrier told us of her adopted daughter, whose mother, Brenda Wolfe, was murdered by the notorious serial-killer, Robert Pickton, who fed her body to his pigs. Her jawbone was found in the pig trough.

He admitted killing 49 women – all involved in prostitution and most indigenous. The police missed endless opportunities to end his killing spree, just as West Yorkshire Police spent years bodging chances to catch Peter Sutcliffe.

What do you expect? Women involved in prostitution are disposable and when they are racialized, even more so. As Dr Carter said, prostitution makes a statement about all women: that all women can be bought and sold, and if a man doesn’t want to buy you, he can rape you. If you can be bought and sold, you’ve not got full human rights. So of course the police aren’t going to prioritise your disappearance or even murder.

Ne’cole Daniels was a ‘trick baby’ – her father a ‘trick’ or ‘john’ as American prostituted women refer to their punters. She was the third generation of women in her family who landed up in prostitution. She spoke movingly about the havoc that the trauma her mother and grandmother experienced wreaked on the family. She had an epiphany and became determined that she would be the last one; that there would be no fourth generation.

The pain and loss in these women’s lives was a palpable presence – the pain and struggle of being Black in a white supremacist culture; female in a male supremacist culture.

White-dominated agencies are ill-equipped to deal with Black women’s emotional pain – pain caused by white racism. The need for well-funded services run by Black women for Black women is urgent. Daniels, like Perrier, Meji and Dr Carter, has dedicated her life to serving the women in her community and telling the world the brutal truth about the sex trade.

Suzanne Jay, an Asian Canadian woman, spelled out the racist ways in which Asian women are packaged as products for men, raw materials for multi-billion dollar profits: china dolls, geishas, Japanese schoolgirls, and willing, subservient girlfriends. Their small stature and ‘childlike’ features are fetishized in porn and brothels everywhere.

She traced the roots of this back to the Japanese ‘comfort women’ brothels in the Second World War, enthusiastically taken over by the United States afterwards. The US ‘rest and recreation’ centres set up during the Vietnam War confirmed Thailand’s lasting pre-eminence as a ‘sex tourist’ destination, where relatively wealthy white men come in their thousands to buy sexual access to poor Asian women, feeding off their poverty, disadvantages and suffering.

Just as the military use and abuse prostituted women, so do the so-called peacekeepers. While UN peacekeepers were in Cambodia, its sex trade more than tripled.

Many people argue that the solution is to legalise the sex trade or to decriminalise all its aspects. But consider what we heard from Roella Lieveld about the Netherlands, where prostitution was legalised 19 years ago and recent research found that 97% of the women involved experience violence.

Consider also the Black woman we heard about whose pimp placed her in one of the legal brothels in Nevada. When the white men didn’t buy her because she’s Black, her pimp beat her for not making enough money. She was advised to get photos taken of herself naked on all fours and to market them to punters who like Ku Klux Klan roleplay.

Is such a brutal, exploitative and racist industry really reform-able?

And what is it for anyway? Male orgasms. And building up male egos and entitlement.

I leave you with the wisdom of Ally Diamond, an indigenous woman from Australia. She asked why society enables men’s bad behaviour. We make excuses for them: they don’t mean it; they can’t help it; it’s not their fault. When did this start? When did we start downgrading men’s abuse from serious to not so serious?

We deserve better. We need to unite and rise up and say enough is enough. We need the Nordic Model. And we need it now.

This article first appeared in the Morning Star on International Women’s Day, 2019.

Interview with a former brothel madam – Andrea Heinz
Rochelle, October 18, 2020

When Andrea Heinz was 22 years old, she found herself deep in debt. With limited skills and lack of resources, she turned to the sex trade to make ends meet. I interviewed her to get her story and her point of view on the sex trade as a former brothel madam.

“I have many regrets from my time in the sex trade, but none so many or severe as the damage I directly and indirectly did to my fellow women.” – Andrea Heinz, former brothel madam

Rochelle: Tell our readers a little bit about yourself.

Andrea: I am a 37 year-old Canadian woman who is happily married with 3 children. I hold a diploma in Correctional Services and am presently in my final year of studies to complete a Bachelor of Professional Arts in Governance, Law & Management. I love to exercise and have been an avid runner for nearly 25 years. I also love to read, and I occasionally write poetry. I became a sex trade abolitionist after spending seven years in the licensed & regulated sex trade in Edmonton, Alberta from 2006-2013.
andrea heinz interview with a former brothel madam Radicailín - Radical Feminists Ireland

Rochelle: What got you into the sex industry?

Andrea: When I was 22 I found myself $60,000 in debt from a string of financially abusive relationships coupled with limited skills, no post-secondary education, and a lack of financial literacy. For years I struggled, at one point working five part-time jobs in an attempt to clear my debt. When I saw an ad in my local newspaper offering thousands of dollars a week for “adult entertainment”, I replied to the ad unaware of what I was even replying to. I was so naïve and had not had any exposure to the sex trade prior to that, aside from glamorized depictions in media and pop culture.

Rochelle: How long were you in there for? Give us a summary of your experience.

Andrea: What was intended to be a short (and reluctant) two-months in the sex trade ended up becoming seven years of full-time participation entailing well over four thousand “sessions” with buyers. Initially I operated under others at three different brothels in my first three years, and after experiencing repeated abuse and victimization, I built and owned my own brothel for the last four years. At the time it seemed like a good thing to do to help and support women (as well as myself), but looking back it only moved the abuse the women experienced from another location to my brothel instead. I began to see that the harm sellers were experiencing was not an issue of legality or of indoor versus outdoor, rather it was the objectification and dehumanization that is inherent to the sex trade itself. All in all in was a negative and demeaning experience that continues to adversely affect me to this day.

Rochelle: Tell me about how you exited the industry. Were there help & support available for you? Did it have effects on your mental health/wellbeing?

Andrea: I was fortunate in that I was able to exit on my first attempt. That is not typical of sex sellers. I credit that to having a loving and supportive family, a non-abusive and encouraging partner, good friends, and a determination to strive for more in my life. The Centre to End All Sexual Exploitation (CEASE) in Edmonton offers valuable exit supports such as counseling referrals, victim advocacy, educational bursaries and immediate poverty relief. While I never utilized these services specifically, I found great support within their peer network and those within the organization who have been working tirelessly as advocates in my community for over twenty years. The guidance and support of the women who went before me paired with the support in my personal life made all the difference for me in exiting – emotionally, mentally, and practically.
andrea heinz interview with a former brothel madam Radicailín - Radical Feminists Ireland

Rochelle: I found your account on Twitter as a few of the people I followed “liked” your thread apologising for the harm you’ve caused. That must have been hard for you. I know a former madam who doesn’t regret anything & showed no signs of guilt, she is a very practical woman and she is for pro legalisation. What brought you to take the abolitionist position? Or why have you become an abolitionist?

Andrea: As a feminist who greatly values women’s rights, I tried for years to internalize and subscribe to the “sex work is work” ideology. We all want women to be safe and have equality, and the sex work ideology is certainly palatable, seemingly entrenched in bodily autonomy and freedom of expression. My observations rarely ever led me to conclude that the women I knew (including myself) held genuine bodily autonomy though, or derived empowerment from enduring repeated unwanted sexual contact with strange, often aggressive/violent men. I have met hundreds of women selling sex and nearly every single one entered and operated under constrained choice, never genuine choice. My love of reading led me to delve deep into the academic realm and study sexual exploitation. That, coupled with the writings of other exited women-turned abolitionists left me no option but to then accept the industry for what it truly is: a gendered and high-risk activity that is deeply rooted in the social and economic marginalization of women and girls. At the end of the day I am a believer that people, and particularly their sexual consent, should not be capitalized. I believe in the intrinsic value of the human being, and their right to live a life of dignity, free of being sexually exploited in order to pay rent or buy groceries.

Rochelle: So, does this mean you don’t think sex work is work? A lot of liberal feminists and pro decriminalisation lobby groups like to say it is a woman’s choice, that some find it liberating. What are your thoughts on this?

Andrea: I think the sex trade is a tragic outcome of classism mixing with patriarchy. I refuse to dignify it with the term “work”. I try not to assume that everyone is a victim however, as many providers including myself operated with a great deal of privilege, earning hundreds of dollars an hour and would never self-identify as a “survivor”. Still, identifying as a victim is not a requirement to actually being victimized, and when someone uses money as a coercive tool to void the obtainment of genuine sexual consent they are in fact victimizing someone. The refusal of providers to acknowledge and internalize their victimization is a self-preservation technique that supports their longevity. We all try to make the most of what we do since women all want to feel empowered and see themselves as such. If selling sex was truly a genuine choice though, we would see people with other viable choices “choosing” to sell sex at rates in alignment with other high-paying activities. While there is undoubtedly empowered and privileged “sex worker” identifying people out there, they are not by any means reflective of the vast majority of those in the sex trade, and we should not sacrifice the ninety percent or so of people who seek alternate options and exit strategies.

You can read more on this in my recently published paper here:

https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/dignity/vol5/iss1/8

Rochelle: The main thing pro decriminalisation and sex workers’ groups criticise about The Nordic Model is that it takes away sex workers’ livelihood because johns are afraid to buy sex hence proponents of it are what they would call “SWERFs” (Sex Workers Exclusionary Radical Feminists). What are your thoughts on this? They argue that there are sex workers who are there by choice and that we focus too much on trafficked people—that there are people who do other types of sex work that deserve protection and rights like women who produce work for OnlyFans.

Andrea: A “sex worker” once said to me “I know most women are not here by choice, but that’s not my problem, I want to sell sex and should be able to”. I was left wondering when we became such an individualistic and selfish society, foregoing any concern for the collective good of community, of womanhood. It’s akin to someone saying “sure most drunk driving is harmful, but I can drive intoxicated no problem so it should be legal to do so”. We have to work collectively for what is good for women as a whole, and that is not reducing us to a mere purchasable commodity for men. We need to work toward genuine equality in the mainstream workforce, and in leadership positions within government, access to healthcare, affordable childcare. We will not increase our social positioning by giving oral sex in a brothel. We need to change the culture so that men support women in striving for true equality, and so that women don’t feel the need to sell sex in order to feel empowered (which really just means earn a liveable wage and survive independently of men). If women were to acquire actual, real equality, I doubt there would be many, if any, “choosing” to remain in the sex trade. The Equality Model (Nordic Model) when adequately supported (financially), is the most effective legislative approach for women to successfully exit and bridge over to conventional lifestyles. We need to put real dollars into that model though so that women’s income and livelihood are not adversely affected in the effort to reduce/eliminate sexual exploitation.

Rochelle: Do you think sex work can truly be consensual?

Andrea: No. Two of the key components to legally giving sexual consent are 1) that it is freely given without coercion and 2) that no one party is in a position of power or authority over another. For the thousands of men who paid me for sex, I never once consented with a single one of them – I only offered compliance in exchange for their money. In order to endure the barrage of off-putting sexual intrusions, I had to do what many women do and that is dissociate, separating my mind and my body from one another. Money does not equal consent. I have seen women smile to a buyer while they service them sexually and then break down sobbing the moment he leaves. I have seen this multiple times, many women turning to drugs, self-harm and other self-soothing techniques to try to mitigate the flood of negative feelings. Unwanted sex is unwanted sex whether we are compensated for it or not. I don’t believe there is a “sex worker” who can say they have never, at one point or another, endured unwanted sex with a buyer. It is imperative to uphold the sanctity of genuine sexual consent.
andrea heinz interview with a former brothel madam Radicailín - Radical Feminists Ireland My Body is Not a commodity

Rochelle: Someone replied to a tweet that I posted saying it’s the stigma that makes sex work dangerous. I obviously disagreed as I think it’s male violence. But what’s your opinion on this?

Andrea: I feel both stigma and male violence are harmful to those who sell sex. Throughout history, it has always been the woman (seller) bearing the brunt of all social consequences, very rarely the men (buyers) who are there based on their “entertainment” and individual gratification. The buyers (who are always strongly protected through anonymity and the sexual double standard) make the genuine CHOICE to circumvent someone’s consent, while the seller is often there out of economic destitution or force as with trafficking. When we stigmatize women for their desperation, we are doing them a grave injustice. The onus of harm that results from the sex trade falls largely on the demand side, and men should be held accountable for their actions that result in millions of women and girls worldwide acquiring lifelong trauma and harm. That said, I don’t feel buyers should be stigmatized either, we need to approach them with understanding, accountability, and opportunities for rehabilitation if we want to see them transform into non-exploitative men.

Rochelle: What do you think are the things people in the industry need in order for them to be safe? I’m anti-sex work but I am for pro sex-worker’s rights, to be safe and to be protected. So I suppose my question is, how can we abolish the trade and look after the girls, women and others who are still in it?

Andrea: I have come to realize that despite our best efforts to reduce harm, the real harm itself comes from unsavory/violent sex buyers as well as the impact of repetitively being objectified and exploited. We have attempted several buffer strategies over many years in varying cultures to no avail (legalization, decriminalization. shift to indoor locations, licensing oversight, panic buttons in the rooms). It is not the stipulations of selling sex that determine harm – it is the act of sexual access being commoditized and the harm that men directly cause us (choking, stalking, stealthing). To reduce the harm on sellers, we need to remove them completely from what it is that is truly harming them – and that is being forced to sexually engage dangerous and misogynistic men who don’t view them as equals. This requires criminalization of sex buying as well as third-party exploitative acts including pimping and human trafficking (Equality Model approach). Harm reduction such as condom distribution and support referrals certainly helps, but harm elimination needs to be the actual end goal.


Rochelle: Lastly, you mentioned you were doing a documentary. Do you want to give us a little bit of info about that and I can share the gofundme link for people to donate to help get you some funds.

Andrea: Thank you so much. I am presently directing my first film ‘Labeled’ in partnership with Guerrilla Motion Pictures, Inc. (Edmonton) which chronicles my attempt to challenge the United States to absolve me of a travel waiver requirement after declaring me inadmissible in 2010 and documenting me a ‘prostitute’ in their immigration database. I had been invited by a doctor to travel to Las Vegas and was intercepted at the border and issued a ban, which remains in effect against me until Dec 20, 2022. The buyer received no consequences and was permitted to carry on to Las Vegas for the scheduled trip. The film also examines the sex trade on a macro level, arguing that it is not a victimless activity. We hope to have it released by mid-2021 and would greatly appreciate any and all support given here:
Support Andrea’s film

https://radicailin.com/interview-with-a-former-brothel-madam-andrea...

Women in prostitution in Ireland experience ‘endemic violence’
Report says 2017 law has made a ‘very promising’ start in interrupting sex trade
The report highlighted the case of a teenager who was coerced into prostitution by her mother and marketed on an “escort” website to appear like a child. File photograph: Getty Images

Kitty Holland Social Affairs Correspondent, Irish Times, Nov 19, 2020

A teenager, coerced into prostitution by her mother and marketed on an “escort” website to appear like a child, is among the cases highlighted in a landmark report on prostitution, published on Thursday.

Titled Shifting The Burden of Criminality and conducted by the Sexual Exploitation Research Programme in UCD, the report analyses the commercial sex industry against the backdrop of a review of the 2017 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences) Act, which criminalises the purchase of sex.

The report details “endemic violence” experienced by women and the abusive demands of buyers, highlighting backgrounds marked by poverty and trauma. It concludes the 2017 legislation has had made a “very promising” start in interrupting the demand for sex-for-sale in Ireland.

Underlining the extreme vulnerability of some of the younger women, the report says some have been coerced by family members.

In one case a young Romanian woman was removed from a brothel and brought to a support service. Pictures of her on an “escort” website showed her wearing knickers with a flowers pattern and a trainer bra.

The service’s manager told researchers: “She was really skinny and really small. She was 18 and 3 months when they went in… but the ad was very much [made] to look like a kid. And the language… you know the way they have the coded language… ‘new in town’… ‘fresh’... to imply she was very young.”

The service supported her for the weekend. “But when she got her phone phone back on the Monday she had about 50 missed calls from her mother. And she got upset, obviously... She rang her mum and her mum said, ‘You get back to that brothel, little bitch.’ And I had to drop her back to the brothel...”

Interviews were carried for the report with gardaí and support groups including Ruhama and the HSE’s Women’s Health Service (WHS). No women who identify freely as “sex workers” were interviewed.

Both Ruhama and WHS support women from about 40 countries including Brazil, Romania, Hungary, Ireland and Nigeria. Most of the African women were victims of trafficking.

The report says the majority of women accessing these services had lived in poverty as children and/or adults, a significant proportion experienced childhood abuse and neglect, and some grew up with and/or experienced domestic violence.

Violence and abuse are “recurrent” themes in the women’s lives. A service manager said women recounted “verbal abuse, physical assault, coerced sexual acts, rape and sexual assault”. There are “disgusting” and “weird” requests made of them.

There are “punters”, said one, “who want to be babies and simulate sexual abuse” or to urinate on the women.

The long-term impacts include physical injuries, sexual and reproductive health impacts, long-term chronic pain, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, self-harming, drug and alcohol dependency, depression and low self-esteem.

It can only be concluded, says the report “that this highly exploitative trade cannot be permitted to persist or expand”.

The legislation, where women in the industry are not criminalised and the buyers are, has had a positive impact. The report calls, however, for “clarity and guidance” in distinguishing between brothel keeping/organising – which remains illegal, and individuals who are working together in an apartment for safety.

It calls for “enhanced resourcing of specialist” organisations like Ruhama and the statutory WHS, and for greater supports for women exiting the industry.

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/women-in-prostitutio...

The cost of Western Europe’s rampant prostitution: the genocide of Romanian women

By Ana, March 2, 2020 by NMN

I have decided to try this avenue and post here, not my story, not the story of a relative, not even the story of a friend, but the story of a whole country, my country – Romania. It is a gruesome story – in fact, ‘story’ is a misnomer. It is a gruesome reality. Of course, you are well aware of it, but I’ll tell it nonetheless.

Here in Romania, we’re at the end of our wits and we, as common people, are doing everything we can on our part and I can only hope I can contribute by telling it here in the hopes of making a dent, at least.

For the last eight months or so, the entire country has been in turmoil and living a nightmare. I do not say ‘nightmare’ lightly. I wish it had just been a bad dream that we’d woken from. If only… But the reality is we can’t shake off the nightmarish situation that’s been stewing since about the time my country was accepted into the European Union and the borders were opened. While it was a fantastic opportunity for the development of the country, it was also the beginning of a horrifying new reality – rampant human trafficking.

In an effort to provide for themselves and/or their families, people started to go abroad in search of work opportunities they couldn’t find at home. But it was also a huge opportunity for interlopers and human traffickers, because the opening of the borders made it easier for them to do what they had previously been doing with a lot more difficulty. Now their activity is widespread and unchecked.

They have no qualms. They brazenly state that it’s a certified way of making a living. Given the legal status of prostitution in many EU countries, trafficking women and children has become in Romania a legitimate way of making a fortune for the ‘smarter’ people. They declare that dirty money is easier and faster to make with little to no effort on their part. That’s ‘smart’ to them. They announce this unapologetically, and with a superior smirk, on every medium, official and unofficial. For the ordinary, hardworking population, this is unbelievable, unbearable, terrifying.

As I said, it all boiled over about eight months ago, when, at the end of July 2019, a 14 year old girl – Alexandra Macesanu – was abducted from the street on her way home, raped and sold into prostitution.

The day after her kidnapping – after her parents had gone to the police to report her missing – she managed to get hold of a phone and call 112 (the emergency line equivalent to 911 into US or 999 in the UK) and cry for help. She was on the phone with the police three times within 45 minutes begging for help and the police all but laughed at her, finally ignoring her call.

Unbeknown to the kidnappers, the child (let’s not play with words anymore – a 14 year-old IS a child), is the niece of Alexandru Cumpanas, a TV reporter and employee of a popular TV station. The family called him in desperation asking him to help find their daughter. The child is a bespectacled nerdy top-of-the-class student, only interested in school – I say this for anyone tempted to think that she ‘asked for it.’

Her uncle put the story on air. Recordings of the 112 call leaked into the media and everyone could listen to them on YouTube. This, of course, couldn’t be ignored anymore and the authorities had to at least pretend to do something.

A police squad was sent out to search for her. At around 10 pm, they found the house where she was being kept. But they stood at the gates until 6 the next morning, under the pretext that they didn’t have a warrant.

Even the judges who were supposed to release the warrant came to the house. They all spent the night guarding the front gates, bantering and having coffees – giving the interlopers time to move their ‘merchandize’ out through the back.

In the morning the police arrested the alleged kidnapper – a 65 year old man. They made him declare that he’d killed the girl during the night and burnt her body in a barrel that was in the yard. Of course, no such thing had happened. The barrel was shown to the press, but there was no trace of burning human remains.

The authorities kept pushing this story, and all hell broke loose. It was everywhere on every TV station – mainstream and niche. The public outrage was overwhelming. We ALL knew what was happening.

We saw these recent developments as a door that could potentially put an end to this travesty and through which we could demand justice – having seen that everything normal that had been done for years had led nowhere.

Soon, another case surfaced in the same area – the town of Caracal. Another family had been desperately trying to find their daughter – the barely 18 year old Luiza Melencu, also top of her class – who’d been missing for about two months. Although her family had done everything they legally could, the authorities were stalling and laughed in their faces, while not doing anything to find her.

That investigation is still ‘underway’ and the authorities are doing everything in their power to cover it up – while STILL NOT LOOKING for the girls, all public outcry be damned.

But the reporters kept digging and a few are pushing for the truth to be exposed. There is one TV station – ROMANIA TV – that continues to cover the story and their ratings are through the roof.

Their investigation revealed the dark reality. There are over 500 known trafficking rings in Romania, their areas of influence are well mapped and the leaders well known. They cover pretty much every inch of the country. Not a corner has been left unexploited by them.

Prostitution is illegal in Romania, but it is flourishing anyway. As we all know, it produces enormous amounts of money for the ‘clans’ – as the interlopers call themselves with pride. But the biggest source of money is outside the country.

In the beginning, they promised a job abroad in agriculture, in restaurants and as babysitters, and the women who fell prey found themselves in prostitution. When word got out and that tactic didn’t work anymore, they resorted to the ‘lover boy’ method. When that didn’t work so well, they started to steal children and young women from the street and even from their own homes.

Thousands of other cases similar to Alexandra’s and Luiza’s have surfaced – including one where all six children – two boys and four girls – of a single mother were abducted by force, from their house.

None of this – on this scale – would have been possible without the tacit agreement and practical protection of the authorities – police, the justice system, and politicians. The clans have grown so powerful that they even boast of having installed their own politicians, policemen, judges, and prosecutors.

They continually escape justice. If some rogue policemen catch them and somehow manage to bring them to court, they use their money and influence to get off. The money that comes, as I said, not so much from the internal ‘market’, but from other European countries to which they traffic the children and women they get their hands on by any means.

The most important destination are the countries where prostitution is legalized, like Germany and the Netherlands, but also the countries (including the UK) where laws against pimping and buying women in prostitution are not enforced.

Romania has become the number one European source country of children and women in the brothels in Germany and Holland, and also Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Greece and the UK.

Even though the total population of Romania is only about 19 million, there are thousands[*] of Romanian women and children forced into street prostitution in Italy alone – and that’s not counting those in strip clubs, brothels and ‘escort’ prostitution. It’s estimated that there are similar numbers in Spain, the UK, Germany, and Holland – and that’s not considering those in the Arab world and on other continents.

Romania has haemorrhaged more than a million children (girls and boys) and women into the prostitution trade in these countries.

In countries where prostitution is legal, like Germany, only a small percentage of the women involved are locals. German women do not take up this kind of ‘work’ en masse. (Should we wonder why it’s so off-putting?). But the demand is huge – so they outsource to countries like mine.

Meanwhile, our authorities complain about the decrease in fertility. The 2011 census showed that the number of women aged 15–55 was lower than the number of men of the same age. Since then, not a day goes by without at least one case on the news of a woman (of active fertile age) being stabbed, strangled, shot or otherwise murdered by her partner in domestic violence – this makes for an officially declared number of about 300 women killed per year (the real number is higher) since the 2011 census.

That is added to more than 1.5 million who have been annihilated by human trafficking in the past 15 years. That’s about a quarter of the female population of reproductive age.

Who is supposed to make the babies to increase the fertility rate? Will we get to the point where we put the remaining fertile women into cages and forcefully impregnate them to keep the population up?

Because what we see in my country is borderline genocide. Female genocide. I think it’s pretty safe to say that.

I am a 51 year-old woman. I lived the first 21 years of my life under the communist regime. I lived through Ceausescu’s Decree 770 by which abortion and all contraception were banned. Tens of thousands of women died gruesome deaths from getting back alley abortions. I was a child born under that decree. It was in force until 1990.

I can’t even begin to say what social, economic and personal anomalies that decree produced. I can never forget the trauma of being taken out of class in high school for impromptu check-ups, where we, the girls, were lined up like cattle and taken to the principal’s office, which had been turned into an ad-hoc doctor’s surgery, to be checked for pregnancy. This was done in all work places which were predominantly women.

In 1989 we thought we had at last escaped that kind of abuse, persecution and punishment for being a woman. But no. That has turned into another form of female abuse. Into what we have now, when the fact that prostitution is effectively legal / decriminalised in many other countries produces dire and grave effects for the children and women in my country.

As a consequence of this on-going scandal, people are afraid to let their children go to school by themselves. They have to be watched like a toddler. Parents make sure that they send a grandparent or, if there isn’t one, they turn their schedules upside down, are late for work, get penalized for that and so on. Girls are equipped with pepper sprays or penknives and taught what to do, if they can. But they know such things are not very effective and live in fear. What kind of a life is that?

And all this because of the participation of our men in power, men who served the parents of the two still missing girls who want their children back with the sentence (pun intended), “I’m hitting a wall.” Yes. That’s what the attorney general said to them when asked why they aren’t looking for the girls:

“I can’t look for them because there’s a wall stopping me.”

People started rallying for the girls.

It is awful to see the two mothers in tears and on their knees in front of the Police Department building, begging the authorities to find their children and bring them home.

So what is that wall?

Might it be the needs of ‘punters’ in Germany?

In Italy?

All over Europe and elsewhere?

The US military base located only five miles away from the town of Caracal?

The need of the overpaid and oversexed American ‘heroes’ to have sex in their spare time lest they might die from abstinence?

The needs of the ‘heroes’ (read ‘paedophiles’) in the other US military base about 200 miles away near the sea port of Constanta who built a special pavilion INSIDE the base camp where they go and have sex and where they demand to be brought younger and younger girls (children), new ones each time?

(In the case of Alexandra Macesanu and Luiza Melencu, even the FBI got involved and ‘recommended’ putting a lid on the whole affair, and over 90 US soldiers were packed and shipped home a few days after the disappearances broke into the news.)

Might all that be the WALL?

[*] This originally stated that there are “hundreds of thousands” of Romanian women and children forced into street prostitution in Italy. This was an error that has now been corrected.

Ana sent this story through our Share Your Story page. If you have been in the sex trade, or have been affected by it in other less direct ways, and would like to share your story anonymously, we’d love to hear from you too.

https://nordicmodelnow.org/2020/03/02/the-cost-of-western-europes-r...

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